What is an operating system?

An operating system (OS) is the Application Which, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, oversees all the other application programs in a computer. The application programs make use of the working system by making Furthermore, users can interact directly with the operating system Via a user interface like a command line or a graphical user interface (GUI).

9 Popular Mobile Operating Systems

Android OS (Google Inc.) ...
2. Bada (Samsung Electronics) ...
BlackBerry OS (Research In Motion) ...
iPhone OS / iOS (Apple) ...
MeeGo OS (Nokia and Intel) ...
Palm OS (Garnet OS) ...
Symbian OS (Nokia) ...
webOS (Palm/HP) ...

Types of operating systems.

Operating systems normally include pre-loaded on almost any Computer you purchase. Many men and women use the operating system which comes with their computer, however it is possible to update or perhaps alter operating systems. The three most frequent operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux. A GUI enables you to use your mouse to click on icons, switches , and menus, and that which is clearly displayed on the display by means of a combo of images and text. Each operating system's GUI includes a different feel and look, so if you Switch to another operating system it might appear unfamiliar at first. However, modern operating systems have been made to be effortless to utilize , and the majority of the fundamental principles are exactly the same.

Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
Microsoft Windows
Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
macOS
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
Linux
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.
Operating systems for mobile devices
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.

Welcome to the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter, Issue 689 for the week of June 20 – 26, 2021. The full version of this issue is available here.

In this issue we cover:

  • Ubuntu Stats
  • Hot in Support
  • LoCo Events
  • Announcing the Ubuntu Desktop Team Indaba (AMA) – June 25, 2021 @ 5PM UTC
  • Wallpaper Competition for Impish Indri – Ubuntu 21.10
  • Ubucon Asia 2021: CFP closes June 30, Donation ticket now available
  • Ubuntu Cloud News
  • Canonical News
  • In the Press
  • In the Blogosphere
  • Featured Audio and Video
  • Meeting Reports
  • Upcoming Meetings and Events
  • Updates and Security for 18.04, 20.04, 20.10, and 21.04
  • And much more!

The Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is brought to you by:

  • Krytarik Raido
  • Bashing-om
  • Chris Guiver
  • Wild Man
  • And many others

If you have a story idea for the Weekly Newsletter, join the Ubuntu News Team mailing list and submit it. Ideas can also be added to the wiki!

Except where otherwise noted, this issue of the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 License

Voltou a competição de wallpapers Ubuntu, o Constantino quer correr aplicações Android no Ubuntu enquanto continua a investir no OBS Ninja, e o Carrondo a ver se põe tudo em ordem lá em casa…

Já sabem: oiçam, subscrevam e...

This week we’ve been configuring new-ish HP Microservers and entering our first game jam. We discuss Project Kebe, an open source Snap Store implementation, and respond to all your wonderful feedback.

It’s Season 14 Episode 18 of the Ubuntu Podcast! Alan Pope, Mark Johnson and Martin Wimpress are connected and speaking to your brain.

In this week’s show:

  • We discuss what we’ve been up to recently:
    • Alan has been configuring a new(er) HP MicroServer.
    • Martin has entered My First Game Jam – Summer 2021.
  • We discuss a Project Kebe – an open-source Snap Store implementation
  • We share a Webby Lurve:
    • “The easiest way to create a README” – Readme dot so
  • And we go over all your amazing feedback – thanks for sending it – please keep sending it!
  • Image credit: Fabrizio Magoni
  • We are running a crowd funder to cover our audio production costs on Patreon.
  • You can listen to the Ubuntu Podcast back catalogue on YouTube.

That’s all for this week! If there’s a topic you’d like us to discuss, or you have any feedback on previous shows, please send your comments and suggestions to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or Tweet us or Toot us or Comment on our Facebook page or comment on our sub-Reddit.

  • Join us in...

Preamble I recently started working for InfluxData as a Developer Advocate on Telegraf, an open source server agent to collect metrics. Telegraf builds from source to ship as a single Go binary. The latest - 1.19.1 was released just yesterday. Part of my job involves helping users by reproducing reported issues, and assisting developers by testing their pull requests. It’s fun stuff, I love it. Telegraf has an extensive set of plugins which supports gathering, aggregating & processing metrics, and sending the results to other systems.


Linux 5.13 kernel release:
https://lkml.org/lkml/2021/6/27/202

LTSM proposed:
https://github.com/AndreyBarmaley/linux-terminal-service-manager

Release of Mixxx 2.3, the free music mixing app:
http://mixxx.org/

Ubuntu is moving away from dark headers and light backgrounds:
https://github.com/ubuntu/yaru/pull/2922

Ultimaker Cura 4.10 released:
https://ultimaker.com/learn/an-improved-engineering-workflow-with-ultimaker-cura-4-10

Pop!_OS 21.04 distribution offers new COSMIC desktop:
https://system76.com/pop

SeaMonkey 2.53.8 Integrated Internet Application Suite Released:
https://www.seamonkey-project.org/news#2021-06-30

Suricata Intrusion Detection System Update:
https://suricata.io/2021/06/30/new-suricata-6-0-3-and-5-0-7-releases/

AlmaLinux includes support for ARM64:
https://wiki.almalinux.org/release-notes/8.4-arm.html

Qutebrowser 2.3 released:
https://lists.schokokeks.org/pipermail/qutebrowser-announce/2021-June/000104.html

Tux Paint 0.9.26 is released:
http://www.tuxpaint.org/latest/tuxpaint-0.9.26-press-release.php

Jim Whitehurst, head of Red Hat, steps down as president of IBM:
https://www.cnbc.com/quotes/IBM

OpenZFS 2.1 release with dRAID support

Welcome to the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter, Issue 690 for the week of June 27 – July 3, 2021. The full version of this issue is available here.

In this issue we cover:

  • Welcome New Members and Developers
  • Ubuntu Stats
  • Hot in Support
  • LoCo Events
  • Focal Fossa (20.04.3 LTS) Point-Release Status Tracking
  • Landscape Release Notes 18.03
  • Ubucon Asia 2021: CFP extended until July 14
  • Ubuntu Cloud News
  • Canonical News
  • In the Blogosphere
  • Featured Audio and Video
  • Meeting Reports
  • Updates and Security for 18.04, 20.04, 20.10, and 21.04
  • And much more!

The Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is brought to you by:

  • Krytarik Raido
  • Bashing-om
  • Chris Guiver
  • Wild Man
  • And many others

If you have a story idea for the Weekly Newsletter, join the Ubuntu News Team mailing list and submit it. Ideas can also be added to the wiki!

Except where otherwise noted, this issue of the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 License

When Julian Andres Klode and I added initial Zstandard compression support to Ubuntu’s APT and dpkg in Ubuntu 18.04 LTS we planned getting the changes accepted to Debian quickly and making Ubuntu 18.10 the first release where the new compression could speed up package installations and upgrades. Well, it took slightly longer than that.

Since then many other packages have been updated to support zstd compressed packages and read-only compression has been back-ported to the 16.04 Xenial LTS release, too, on Ubuntu’s side. In Debian, zstd support is available now in APT, debootstrap and reprepro (thanks Dimitri!). It is still under review for inclusion in Debian’s dpkg (BTS bug 892664).

Given that there is sufficient archive-wide support for zstd, Ubuntu is switching to zstd compressed packages in Ubuntu 21.10, the current development release. Please welcome hello/2.10-2ubuntu3, the first zstd-compressed Ubuntu package that will be followed by many other built with dpkg (>= 1.20.9ubuntu2), and enjoy the speed!

I have so many applications on my Android Phone, I’ve lost count. Too many chat apps, multiple web browsers, tons of games, and other garbage. However, there’s one app, which is one of my favourites while probably being the least used application. It doesn’t technically benefit me at all, but is useful to others, when I use it. The app in question is “Be My Eyes”. It’s available for Android and iOS, and is very easy to setup.

O vacinado Carrondo continua muito atarefado, mas AFK, enquanto o Constantino não conseguiu assistir à apresentação de um SO não Ubuntu mas vingou-se no youtube do Steve Seguin e ainda teve tempo para navegar por extensões do Firefox.

Já sabem: oiçam, subscrevam e...

This week we’ve been holiday and been learning Godot. We round up news and goings on from the community and discuss our picks from the wider tech news.

It’s Season 14 Episode 17 of the Ubuntu Podcast! Alan Pope, Mark Johnson and Martin Wimpress are connected and speaking to your brain.

In this week’s show:

  • We discuss what we’ve been up to recently:
    • Martin has been learning Godot.
    • Mark has been on holiday.
  • We discuss the community news:
    • Canonical to offer Blender support
    • Robert Collins shares his first email from Mark Shuttleworth
    • Debian User Repository is a thing
    • Wallpaper Competition for Impish Indri – Ubuntu 21.10
  • We discuss the news:
    • NVIDIA 470.42.01 for Linux adds DLSS for Proton and Xwayland acceleration
    • “I’m totally screwed.” WD My Book Live users wake up to find their data deleted
    • UK “gadget levy” proposed to fund artists
  • Image credit: Neel
  • We are running a crowd funder to cover our audio production costs on Patreon.
  • You can listen to the Ubuntu Podcast back catalogue on YouTube.

That’s all for this week! If there’s a topic you’d like us to discuss, or you have any feedback on previous shows, please send your comments and suggestions to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or

In no particular order:

  • My author copies of the third novella have shown up finally. I am pleased with how they turned out. The next item is likely to go in a different direction. It may build off a tabletop exercie scenario potentially. We’ll see what happens.
  • My laptop did not pass the test for Windows 11 upgrade readiness. I don’t think I have anything that meets the bar for that. While I need to have at least one foot in the Windows world due to the various bits of proprietary Windows-only software mandated by the state government upon local governments I don’t have to like the situation.
  • Use of an SDR dongle is a bit rougher at my home than I would have thought. The local environment is very challenging when it comes to electrical smog.

Tags: Life

My main system is currently running Ubuntu 21.04. For e-mail I'm relying on neomutt together with offlineimap, which both are amazing tools. Recently offlineimap was updated/moved to offlineimap3. Looking on my system, offlineimap reports itself as OfflineIMAP 7.3.0 and dpkg tells me it is version 0.0~git20210218.76c7a72+dfsg-1.

Unicode Decode Error problem

Today I noticed several errors in my offlineimap sync log. Basically the errors looked like this:

UnicodeDecodeError: 'utf-8' codec can't decode byte 0xfc in position 1299: invalid start byte
UnicodeDecodeError: 'utf-8' codec can't decode byte 0xeb in position 1405: invalid continuation byte

Solution

If you encounter it as well (and you use mutt or neomutt), please have a look at this great comment on Github from Joseph Ishac (jishac) since his tip solved the issue for me.

To "fix" this issue for future emails, I modified my .neomuttrc and commented out the default send encoding charset and omitted the iso-8859-1 part:

#set send_charset = "us-ascii:iso-8859-1:utf-8"
set send_charset = "us-ascii:utf-8"

Then I looked through the email files on the filesystem and identified the ISO-8859 encoded emails in the Sent folder...

Canonical livepatch is the service and the software that enables organizations to quickly patch vulnerabilities on the Ubuntu Linux kernels. Livepatch provides uninterrupted service while reducing fire drills during high and critical severity kernel vulnerabilities. It is a complex technology and the details can be confusing, so in this post we provide a high level introduction to Ubuntu Linux kernel livepatching and the processes around it.

Livepatch introduction

When reviewing the major cybersecurity data breaches via web services (e.g., from the 2021 Verizon data breach investigations report), one cannot but notice that after credential based attacks, the exploitation of vulnerabilities is the major attack vector.  According to the same report, only a quarter of scanned organizations patch vulnerabilities in less than two months after being public, something that indicates that organizations are not generally proactive and consistent in vulnerability patching. And that’s not without a reason; addressing vulnerabilities through unplanned work is a challenge as it takes the organization’s focus away by creating unplanned maintenance windows where patches are being applied and...

The release of stress-ng 0.12.12 incorporates some useful features and a handful of new stressors.

Media devices such as HDDs and SSDs normally support Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T.) to detect and report various measurements of drive reliability.  To complement the various file system and I/O stressors, stress-ng now has a --smart option that checks for any changes in the S.M.A.R.T. measurements and will report these at the end of a stress run, for example:

..as one can see, there are errors on /dev/sdc and this explains why the ZFS pool was having performance issues.

For x86 CPUs I have added a new stressor to trigger System Management Interrupts via writes to port 0xb2 to force the CPU into System Management Mode in ring -2. The --smi stressor option will also measure the time taken to service the SMI. To run this stressor, one needs the --pathological option since this may hang the computer and they behave like non-maskable interrupts:

To exercise the munmap(2) system call a new munmap stressor has been added. This creates child processes that walk through their memory mappings from /proc/$pid/maps and unmap pages on libraries that are not being...

This blog title should really be, “Why you always, always, always want conflict detection turned on on all the networks MAAS touches,” but that’s really long as a title. But hear me out.

As promised, here is another DHCP blog, this time explaining how you can have multiple DHCP servers on the same subnet, serving overlapping IP addresses. There are a lot of network-savvy folks who will tell you that serving the same set of IP addresses from two different DHCP servers just won’t work. While that’s a really good rule to follow, it isn’t totally accurate under all conditions.

Keeping it “loosely coupled”

Some DHCP implementations offer a feature called server conflict detection. In short, DHCP SCD uses ICMP Echo messages (pings) — with an appropriate wait time — to see if an IP address is in use before trying to lease it to a client. If all the DHCP servers on a given subnet have SCD enabled, you don’t have to worry about whether the DHCP server scopes overlap. You can assign whatever set of IP addresses you want to whichever DHCP server, and they will work together without addressing errors.

So what’s really surprising about this feature? Well, in RFC 2131, ping checks are...

Lubuntu 20.10 (Groovy Gorilla) was released October 22, 2020 and will reach End of Life on Thursday, July 22, 2021. This means that after that date there will be no further security updates or bugfixes released. We highly recommend that you update to 21.04 as soon as possible if you are still running 20.10. After […]

The post Lubuntu 20.10 End of Life and Current Support Statuses first appeared on Lubuntu.

O Constantino foi à televisão dar uma entrevista, e o Carrondo andou de estivador… Ainda assim este episódio do Podcast Ubuntu Portugal deixa-vos a par das últimas sobre Ubuntu, software livre e outras cenas.

Já sabem: oiçam, subscrevam e partilhem!

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WH-wCfo8R5c
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aIwgPKkVj8s
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=udyq7-SCJrQ
  • https://www.opensourcelisbon.com
  • https://www.humblebundle.com/software/python-development-software?partner=PUP
  • https://www.humblebundle.com/books/learn-you-more-python-books?partner=PUP
  • https://www.humblebundle.com/books/knowledge-101-adams-media-books?partner=PUP
  • https://keychronwireless.referralcandy.com/3P2MKM7
  • https://www.humblebundle.com/books/head-first-programming-oreilly-books?parner=PUP
  • https://shop.nitrokey.com/shop/product/nk-pro-2-nitrokey-pro-2-3?aff_ref=3
  • https://shop.nitrokey.com/shop?aff_ref=3
  • https://youtube.com/PodcastUbuntuPortugal

Apoios

Podem apoiar o podcast usando os links de afiliados do Humble Bundle, porque ao usarem esses links para fazer uma compra, uma parte do valor que pagam reverte a favor do Podcast Ubuntu Portugal.
E podem obter tudo isso com 15 dólares ou diferentes...

“Allow for miracles but plan for disasters.”

I tossed that one-liner out there in an interview earlier today. It shows that I’ve been following the news a wee bit. There’s been more going on that directly impacts my situation than I like.

Previously I have mentioned that I participate in Ashtabula County’s broadband task force. That’s an effort by the county government to try to improve economic development by improving part of our local infrastructure. It has been mentined by local public radio stations looking at how we have problems with broadband in my local area as recently as March of this year.

That is why a report from Ars Technica by Jon Brodkin might have been confusing to some folks out there that saw it today. If anything I am still baffled by the situation especially when I learned of it on Wednesday from local media sources. Mr. Brodkin reported that the state legislature is proposing to outlaw municipal broadband in Ohio while also prohibiting the continued operation of municipal broadband efforts like FairlawnGig that already exist. Ohio News Connection/Public News Service also talks about the situation a bit.

Due to the offices of my local state...

This week we’ve been learning Davinci Resolve and instrumenting our house with DHT11 sensors. We round up the goings on from the Ubuntu community and discuss our favourite picks from the wider tech news.

It’s Season 14 Episode 15 of the Ubuntu Podcast! Alan Pope, Mark Johnson and Martin Wimpress are connected and speaking to your brain.

In this week’s show:

  • We discuss what we’ve been up to recently:
    • Martin as been learning Davinci Resolve.
    • Alan has been playing with DHT11 temperature sensors.
  • We discuss the community news:
    • Kai-Fu Lee’s Sinovation bets on Linux tablet maker Jingling in $10M round
    • Yet more erroneous Ubuntu takedowns
    • WINE Patches make Roblox work on Linux
    • FOSSHost rolls back partnership with Freenode
    • freenode finds another shark to jump
    • Mike Ybarra teases Linux gamers
    • Sommelier-Core gets some love
  • We discuss the news:
    • UK competition watchdog begins probe into Apple and Google’s total domination of the mobile landscape
    • Web founder Berners-Lee to auction source code as NFT
    • Google uses AI to rapidly design computer chips
    • How the FBI’s Trojan Shield operation exposed a criminal underworld
  • Image credit: Guido Coppa
  • We are running a crowd funder to cover our audio...

Over the weekend I participated in FOSS Talk Live. Before The Event this would have been an in-person shindig at a pub in London. A bunch of (mostly) UK-based podcasters get together and record live versions of their shows in front of a “studio audience”. It’s mostly an opportunity for a bunch of us middle-aged farts who speak into microphones to get together, have a few beers and chat. Due to The Event, this year it was a virtual affair, done online via YouTube.

Earlier this week it was time for GitOps Days again. The third time now and the event has grown quite a bit since we started. Born out of the desire to bring GitOps practitioners together during pandemic times initially, this time we had a proper CFP and the outcome was just great: lots of participation from a very diverse crowd of experts - we had panels, case studies, technical deep dives, comparisons of different solutions and more.

In no particular order:

  • I managed to survive scheduling and hosting a media event as a rookie politician. The article about the event came out okay.
  • The third novella is finally up on Amazon.
    • Through the use of markdownInput tags via the markdown CTAN package I was able to make a shell in LaTeX using the novel class. Individual sections to the novella were written in separate files in markdown which the markdown package then transmuted into LaTeX code to make a novel. Why do this? In this way I could then concatenate the various individual pieces of markdown to make a file to import into Amazon’s infernal Kindle Create software. I need to make this more smoothly automated for the next work to be released.
    • The stories are now grouped under a series title. That has implications such as totally changing where I may go in writing.
    • Groundwork for the fourth story is already being worked on.
  • Only one big crash for whoopsie to catch so far while running Impish Indri on amd64 hardware. So far, so good.
    • That happened primarily with tumblerd, it appears.
    • I am still trying to figure out why cubicsdr refuses to open even though I do have the SDR dongle plugged into the...

Lines of code (LOC) has some known flaws, but one of its advantages is that it lets humans visualize it for a small enough number. For bigger numbers like 100,000 vs 200,000 lines of code it really doesn't help us humans picture it.

For big enough changes, you could switch to just compressing the diff and measuring that. That also nicely tracks what developers would have to actually download to get the new changes. It also helps with understanding the bandwidth requirements of contributing to a project.

Here is what it looks like for the Linux kernel since 4.1. (For Rc1s only - the other rcs are in the 30-100 KiB range)

Compressed_Only

Here is a comparison of how far apart the LOC numbers are from the compressed diff numbers - the longer the line is the further apart they are. The numbers are normalized to 0-1. As you can see, they generally line up.

Compressed_vs_LCO

(You can get the raw spreadsheet here )

Let's get some numbers from another project - say systemd.

$ git tag --list --sort=creatordate | tail

#Pick the last two major releases..
$ git diff v247 v248 |  xz -c -q | wc -c | numfmt --to=iec-i --round=nearest
1.1MiB

Conclusion

This isn't ground breaking, but it may prove to be slightly more...

Welcome to the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter, Issue 688 for the week of June 13 – 19, 2021. The full version of this issue is available here.

In this issue we cover:

  • Ubuntu 20.10 (Groovy Gorilla) reaches End of Life on July 22 2021
  • Ubuntu Stats
  • Hot in Support
  • LoCo Events
  • Updating IRC links on the wiki
  • Community Office Hours, 17 June 2021
  • Ubuntu Cloud News
  • Canonical News
  • In the Blogosphere
  • Featured Audio and Video
  • Meeting Reports
  • Updates and Security for 18.04, 20.04, 20.10, and 21.04
  • And much more!

The Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is brought to you by:

  • Krytarik Raido
  • Bashing-om
  • Chris Guiver
  • Wild Man
  • Mary Frances Hull
  • And many others

If you have a story idea for the Weekly Newsletter, join the Ubuntu News Team mailing list and submit it. Ideas can also be added to the wiki!

Except where otherwise noted, this issue of the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 License

This is an edited copy of an email I sent to provide guidance to users of apt-key as to how to handle things in a post apt-key world.

The manual page already provides all you need to know for replacing apt-key add usage:

Note: Instead of using this command a keyring should be placed directly in the /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/ directory with a descriptive name and either “gpg” or “asc” as file extension

So it’s kind of surprising people need step by step instructions for how to copy/download a file into a directory.

I’ll also discuss the alternative security snakeoil approach with signed-by that’s become popular. Maybe we should not have added signed-by, people seem to forget that debs still run maintainer scripts as root.

Aside from this email, Debian users should look into extrepo, which manages curated external repositories for you.

Direct translation

Assume you currently have:

wget -qO- https://myrepo.example/myrepo.asc | sudo apt-key add –

To translate this directly for bionic and newer, you can use:

sudo wget -qO /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/myrepo.asc https://myrepo.example/myrepo.asc

or to avoid downloading as root:

wget -qO-  https://myrepo.example/myrepo.asc | sudo tee -a...

Ubuntu announced its 20.10 (Groovy Gorilla) release almost 9 months ago, on October 22, 2020, and its support period is now nearing its end. Ubuntu 20.10 will reach end of life on July 22, 2021.

At that time, Ubuntu Security Notices will no longer include information or updated packages for Ubuntu 20.10.

The supported upgrade path from Ubuntu 20.10 is via Ubuntu 21.04. Instructions and caveats for the upgrade may be found at:

https://help.ubuntu.com/community/HirsuteUpgrades

Ubuntu 21.04 continues to be actively supported with security updates and select high-impact bug fixes. Announcements of security updates for Ubuntu releases are sent to the ubuntu-security-announce mailing list, information about which may be found at:

https://lists.ubuntu.com/mailman/listinfo/ubuntu-security-announce

Since its launch in October 2004 Ubuntu has become one of the most highly regarded Linux distributions with millions of users in homes, schools, businesses and governments around the world. Ubuntu is Open Source software, costs nothing to download, and users are free to customise or alter their software in order to meet their needs.

Originally posted to the ubuntu-annouce mailing list on Thu...

Wait what?

Yes, there are couple of ways for you, the user, the contributor, the amazing human being who wants to improve the software that is used by millions, to write automated tests and have bots doing all the work for you, once you’ve signed a binding contract with the blood of an unicorn, and have obtained api keys for our public https://openqa.opensuse.org instance.

For now I will leave out the details on how to get those, but will rather point you to the #factory irc channel (or dischord), where you can get in touch with current admins, whom will be able to guide you better in the process.

I have the keys

You should get operator keys and they would look like this (more or less):

[openqa.opensuse.org]
key = 45ABCEB4562ACB04
secret = 4BA0003086C4CB95

Multipass

Now let’s do this

I will assume that you’re using openSUSE Tumbleweed, instructions are similar for Leap, but if you’re looking for something more esoteric, check the bootstraping guide

Bring up a terminal or your favorite package manager, and install openQA-client, it will pull almost everything you will need

zypper in openQA-client

Once we’re here, we’ve gotta clone the git repo from the tests being ran in...

Another procenv release that is bringing the OSX version up to parity. Also, thanks to harens, procenv is now available in MacPorts! If anyone knows about querying IPC details on Darwin (via Mach?), please comment on the GitHub issue (or raise a PR :)

This month:
* Command & Conquer : LMMS
* How-To : Python, Latex and Taming Your GRUB Menu
* Graphics : Inkscape
* My Opinion – Booting Ubuntu
* Everyday Ubuntu : BibleTime Pt3
* Micro This Micro That
* Ubports Devices
* Review : Lubuntu 21.04
* Review : Xubuntu 21.04
* Ubuntu Games : Defold
plus: News, The Daily Waddle, Q&A, and more.

Get it while it’s hot: https://fullcirclemagazine.org/issue-170/

This week we’ve been playing Subnautica Below Zero, going to the pub and teaching celebrities how to D&D. We have a retrospective on our FOSS Talk Live one-button challenge.

It’s Season 14 Episode 16 of the Ubuntu Podcast! Alan Pope, Mark Johnson Martin Wimpress and Stuart Langridge are connected and speaking to your brain.

In this week’s show:

  • We discuss what we’ve been up to recently:
    • Stuart has been going to the pub and showing Tim Harford from BBC More Or Less how to use Avrae.
    • Mark has been playing Subnautica Below Zero.
  • We have a retrospective on the Ubuntu Voltage one-button challenge at FOSS Talk Live.
  • Image credit: Neven Krcmarek
  • We are running a crowd funder to cover our audio production costs on Patreon.
  • You can listen to the Ubuntu Podcast back catalogue on YouTube.

That’s all for this week! If there’s a topic you’d like us to discuss, or you have any feedback on previous shows, please send your comments and suggestions to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or Tweet us or Toot us or Comment on our Facebook page or comment on our sub-Reddit.

  • Join us in the Ubuntu Podcast Telegram group.

This week, the final week of Ceph Month, the Ceph Foundation announced the creation of the Ceph Market Development Working Group.  Canonical is proud to be amongst the founding members of the group, alongside fellow community members RedHat and SoftIron.

Open source enterprise storage

The group’s primary objectives are to raise wider awareness and understanding that Ceph is capable of being deployed in enterprise settings, and not just in developer orientated circles where it currently sees significant uptake (for example, according to the 2020 Openstack User Survey 74% of deployments are using Ceph for their block storage needs).  The wider storage market is awash of options, both traditional hardware and more modern software-defined solutions.  The desire of the group is to ensure that Ceph makes it into storage decision makers’ minds as a production-proven open-source powered alternative to typical proprietary options.  

Over the coming months, the Market Development Group will lead various educational efforts such as the publication of vendor-agnostic case studies, and use case analysis on the refreshed ceph.io website, as well as the creation of a speakers bureau, where...

O vacinado Constantino aproveitou este episódio para deixar algumas recomendações publicadas pelo Free Code Camp, partilhou ainda as suas recentes experiências com o Multipass e a habitual actualidade do universo Ubuntu.

Já sabem: oiçam, subscrevam e...

We are incredibly proud to announce the beginning of the Impish Indri wallpaper competition! (That’s the code name for Ubuntu 21.10) You can submit your artwork and read the rules over on the Ubuntu discourse. Every new release of Ubuntu comes pre-loaded with new background images that users can select ‘out of the box’. For the Ubuntu Impish Indri release, we are running a competition for members of the community to get their artwork baked into an Ubuntu release, forever.

<noscript> <img alt="" src="https://res.cloudinary.com/canonical/image/fetch/f_auto,q_auto,fl_sanitize,c_fill,w_720/https://ubuntu.com/wp-content/uploads/5591/lanju-fotografie-ogt_WYSY9As-unsplash.jpg" width="720" /> </noscript>

Photo by Lanju Fotografie on Unsplash

It’s all quite straightforward, if you have some artwork that you would like to submit, go to discourse, read through the rules and guidelines, and submit by replying to the original post. Submissions close on the 20th of August. On that date, we’ll post a voting poll for the community to select their top ten submissions. The ten submissions with the most votes will be featured in various places where Ubuntu lives and the top TWO will make it into...

This week we’ve been fixing phones and relearning trigonometry. We round up the news and events from the Ubuntu community and discuss news from the wider tech scene.

It’s Season 14 Episode 13 of the Ubuntu Podcast! Alan Pope, Mark Johnson and Martin Wimpress are connected and speaking to your brain.

In this week’s show:

  • We discuss what we’ve been up to recently:
    • Alan has been reminding himself about trigonometry.
    • Mark has been fixing his phone.
  • We discuss the community news:
    • Ubuntu on Air Reboot
      • https://youtube.com/UbuntuOnAir
      • https://twitch.tv/UbuntuOnAir
    • Snapcrafters Community Reboot
    • Launchpad gains comment editing
    • Disabling Snap Autorefresh
    • FOSSHost needs help to continue
    • Entroware launch Poseidon Desktop
  • We mention some events:
    • FOSS Talk Live 2021: 12th of June 2021 – Online.
  • We discuss the news:
    • freenode drama continues. Listen to 2.5 Admin Episode 40 for the full details.
    • Valve is making a Switch-like portable gaming PC
    • Mozilla announces MDN Plus
  • Image credit: JOYUMA
  • We are running a crowd funder to cover our audio production costs on Patreon.
  • You can listen to the Ubuntu Podcast back catalogue on YouTube.

That’s all for this week! If there’s a topic you’d like us...

Where win means becomes the universal way to get apps on Linux.

In short, I don't think either current iteration will. But why?

I started writing this a while ago, but Disabling snap Autorefresh reminded me to finish it. I also do not mean this as a "hit piece" against my former employer.

Here is a quick status of where we are:

Use case     Snaps   Flatpak
Desktop app  ☑️       ☑️    
Service/Server app  ☑️       🚫   
Embedded  ☑️       🚫   
Command Line apps  ☑️       🚫
Full independence option   🚫      ☑️  
Build a complete desktop   🚫      ☑️  
Controlling updates   🚫      ☑️  

Desktop apps

Both Flatpaks and Snaps are pretty good at desktop apps. They share some bits and have some differences. Flatpak might have a slight edge because it's focused only on Desktop apps, but for the most part it's a wash.

Service/Server / Embedded / Command Line apps

Flatpak doesn't target these at all. Full stop.

Snap wins these without competition from Flatpak but this does show a security difference. sudo snap install xyz will just install it - it won't ask you if you think it's a service, desktop app or some combination (or prompt you for permissions like Flatpak does).

With Embedded...

Welcome to the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter, Issue 685 for the week of May 23 – 29, 2021. The full version of this issue is available here.

In this issue we cover:

  • Announcing Ubuntu’s move to Libera Chat
  • 2021 IRC Council Election Results
  • Ubuntu Stats
  • Hot in Support
  • LoCo Events
  • Are You An Ubuntu Content Creator? Let us Know!
  • What is the Ubuntu Community Council
  • UbuntuOnAir
  • Disabling snap Autorefresh
  • Comment editing is now possible
  • Ubuntu Cloud News
  • Canonical News
  • Other Articles of Interest
  • Featured Audio and Video
  • Meeting Reports
  • Upcoming Meetings and Events
  • Updates and Security for 16.04, 18.04, 20.04, 20.10, and 21.04
  • And much more!

The Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is brought to you by:

  • Krytarik Raido
  • Bashing-om
  • Chris Guiver
  • Wild Man
  • And many others

If you have a story idea for the Weekly Newsletter, join the Ubuntu News Team mailing list and submit it. Ideas can also be added to the wiki!

Except where otherwise noted, this issue of the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 License

I’ve just released the rout tool I mentioned in my last blog post about command-line parsing semantics.

rout is a simple tool, written in rust, that produces unicode utf-8 output in interesting ways. It uses the minimal command-line parsing crate ap. It also uses a fancy pest parser for interpreting escape sequences and range syntax.

Either grab the source, or install the crate:

$ cargo install rout

Full details (with lots of examples! ;) are on both sites:

  • https://crates.io/crates/rout
  • https://github.com/jamesodhunt/rout

It took a while, but now Launchpad finally allows users to edit their comments on questions, bug reports and merge proposal pages.

The first request for this feature dates back from 2007. Since then, Launchpad increased a lot in terms of new features, and the other priorities took precedence over that request, but the request was still more than valid. More recently, we managed to bump the priority of this feature, and now we have it: users are now allowed to edit their comments on Launchpad answers, bugs and merge proposals!

This has been available in the API for a few days already, but today we finally released the fresh new pencil icon in the top-right corner of your messages. Once you click it, the message is turned into a small form that allows you to edit your message content.

For messages that were edited before, it is possible to see old versions of that edited message by clicking the “last edit …” link, also at the top of the message.

In case you introduce sensitive information by mistake in your comment and need to remove it from the message history after editing it, you can always use the API to do so. We plan to add a remove button to the message’s...

This month:
* Command & Conquer : LMMS
* How-To : Python, Latex and Using USB3 on USB2
* Graphics : Inkscape
* My Opinion – Use Case For Alpha Software
* Everyday Ubuntu : BibleTime Pt2
* Micro This Micro That
* Ubports Devices – OTA-17
* Review : Ubuntu 21.04
* Book Review: Big Book Of Small Python Projects
* Ubuntu Games : Mutropolis
plus: News, The Daily Waddle, Q&A, and more.

Get it while it’s hot: https://fullcirclemagazine.org/issue-169/

This week we got a portable touch screen monitor. We discuss our favourite Linux apps, bring you a command line lurve and go over all your wonderful feedback.

It’s Season 14 Episode 14 of the Ubuntu Podcast! Alan Pope, Mark Johnson and Martin Wimpress are connected and speaking to your brain.

In this week’s show:

  • We discuss what we’ve been up to recently:
    • Martin got a WIMAXIT 14 Inch 1080p IPS portable touch screen monitor and a OMOTON adjustable thick tablet Stand
  • We discuss our favourite Linux applications.
    • Martin’s Apps
      • GitKraken – Legendary Git GUI client for Windows, Mac & Linux
      • Shotcut – Shotcut is a free, open source, cross-platform video editor
      • Wavebox – Super-Browser for Work
    • Mark’s Apps
      • PHPStorm – the best PHP IDE
      • Sound Converter – converts, renames and resamples audio files
      • NextCloud – self-hosted “cloud” storage with instant photo upload.
    • Alan’s Apps
      • Google Chrome – The best web browser
      • OBS Studio – Best screen recorder and streamer
      • Visual Studio Code – The best IDE
    • Bonus App
      • Syncthing – Continuous file synchronization
  • We share a command line lurve:
    • rpg-cli – Your filesystem as a dungeon!
rpg ~/Scripts
  spider[2][xxxx]@~/Scripts

    hero[1][xxx-] -11hp
 ...

The month has started off with some big surprises for me. For the low price equal to roughly 34 Beta Edition PinePhones or roughly 72 Raspberry Pi 400 units I wound up having to pay to get my home’s central heating and cooling system replaced. It has been a few days of disruption since the unit failed which combined with the rather hot weather has made my home not quite fit for habitation.

Things like that help me appreciate events like the Fastly outage on Tuesday morning. A glitch in that content delivery network provider damaged the presences of quite a number of sites. While it was a brief event that happened while I was asleep it was apparently jarring to many people.

Both happenings point out that resilience is a journey rather than a concrete endpoint. How easily can you bounce back from the unexpected? If you operate an online service do you even have a plan for when something goes horribly wrong?

Fortunately when the central air unit at home ceased functioning we were able to stay with family while I tracked down a contractor to do an assessment which then turned into a replacement job. Fastly had a contingency plan that it executed to keep the incident down...

Welcome to the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter, Issue 686 for the week of May 30 – June 5, 2021. The full version of this issue is available here.

In this issue we cover:

  • Ubuntu Stats
  • Hot in Support
  • LoCo Events
  • [Call for topics] Community Council meeting: June 16 2021
  • Canonical News
  • In the Blogosphere
  • Other Articles of Interest
  • Featured Audio and Video
  • Meeting Reports
  • Updates and Security for 18.04, 20.04, 20.10, and 21.04
  • And much more!

The Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is brought to you by:

  • Krytarik Raido
  • Bashing-om
  • Chris Guiver
  • Wild Man
  • And many others

If you have a story idea for the Weekly Newsletter, join the Ubuntu News Team mailing list and submit it. Ideas can also be added to the wiki!

Except where otherwise noted, this issue of the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 License

Note: Though this testing was done on Google Cloud and I work at Google, this work and blog post represent my personal work and do not represent the views of my employer.

As a red teamer and security researcher, I occasionally find the need to crack some hashed passwords. It used to be that John the Ripper was the go-to tool for the job. With the advent of GPGPU technologies like CUDA and OpenCL, hashcat quickly eclipsed John for pure speed. Unfortunately, graphics cards are a bit hard to come by in 2021. I decided to take a look at the options for running hashcat on Google Cloud.

There are several steps involved in getting hashcat running with CUDA, and because I often only need to run the instance for a short period of time, I put together a script to spin up hashcat on a Google Cloud VM. It can either run the benchmark or spin up an instance with arbitrary flags. It starts the instance but does not stop it upon completion, so if you want to give it a try, make sure you shut down the instance when you’re done with it. (It leaves the hashcat job running in a tmux session for you to examine.)

At the moment, there are 6 available GPU accelerators on Google Cloud,...

Um episódio feito em condições vocais particularmente exigentes para um dos elementos e que se revelou bastante exigente também para o outro, mas como dizia o Freddie Mercury: The Show Must Go On!

Já sabem: oiçam, subscrevam e...

Snaps are self-contained applications designed with ease of use, security and portability in mind. They bundle their necessary dependencies, so they can work and run without modifications across numerous Linux distributions. How many? More than 40.

Yet, often when technology is strongly associated with a particular product, in this case snaps and Ubuntu, it is easy to assume that the two coincide and overlap. In reality, behind the scenes, a lot of effort is put into making sure snaps perform well on all the different non-Ubuntu distributions. In this article, we want to tell you what the snapd has done for us – apart from the sanitation, the medicine, education, wine, public order, irrigation, roads, a fresh water system, and public health.

Find the source, Tux

Snapd is an open-source project, hosted on GitHub. Anyone, with sufficient coding skills, can grab the code, look at the different bits and pieces, and even compile their own version of snapd. A big part of the source tree includes definitions for different ways and methods of testing snapd – on Ubuntu as well as other distributions.

There is a wide range of static unit tests, integration tests and regressions tests. A...

A while back there was a thread on one of our company mailing lists about SSH quoting, and I posted a long answer to it. Since then a few people have asked me questions that caused me to reach for it, so I thought it might be helpful if I were to anonymize the original question and post my answer here.

The question was why a sequence of commands involving ssh and fiddly quoting produced the output they did. The first example was this:

$ ssh This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. bash -lc "cd /tmp;pwd"
/home/user

Oh hi, my dubious life choices have been such that this is my specialist subject!

This is because SSH command-line parsing is not quite what you expect.

First, recall that your local shell will apply its usual parsing, and the actual OS-level execution of ssh will be like this:

[0]: ssh
[1]: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
[2]: bash
[3]: -lc
[4]: cd /tmp;pwd

Now, the SSH wire protocol only takes a single string as the command, with the expectation that it should be passed to a shell by the remote end. The OpenSSH client deals with this by taking all its arguments after things like options and the target, which in this case are:

[0]: bash
[1]: -lc
[2]: cd /tmp;pwd

It then joins them with a...

Neste episódio falámos sobre a comunidade e o retomar ods encontros presenciais pós pandemia, actualidade da comunidade Ubuntu internacional e o revitalizar das relações entre a Canonical e as várias LoCos espalhadas pelo mundo e fizemos ainda um apanhado das actualidade Ubuntu.

Já sabem: oiçam, subscrevam e...

So the MAAS blog been off the grid since late January, mostly because, well, lots of meaningful doc work. And we’re taking it up a notch this cycle, trying to make RAD smoother, more transparent, and easier to crowd-source updates. But that’s another story for a later blog, closer to the end of the cycle.

The other reason for the “long drink of silence” has been a thorough-going review our discourse forum. We’ve been looking at the kinds of questions users have submitted over the last two or three years — and trying to sort out the types of blogs that would most benefit our readers.

Incidentally, you’ve already indicated (by your reading behaviour) that you, as a MAAS blog reader, much prefer technical explanations of MAAS, the associated tools, and the base technologies upon which MAAS is built.

And our discourse questions back that up. So today, we want to share what we’ve learned, and explain how we’re going to respond to this new understanding going forward.

How did we do this?

We reviewed all questions in the discourse “Users” category and did our best to tag them. Tags were generated on-the-fly, but recorded and re-used where they apply. We then created a spreadsheet of...

We are pleased to announce that Plasma 5.22.0, is now available in our backports PPA for Kubuntu 21.04 Hirsute Hippo.

The release announcement detailing the new features and improvements in Plasma 5.22 can be found here.

To upgrade:

Add the following repository to your software sources list:

ppa:kubuntu-ppa/backports

or if it is already added, the updates should become available via your preferred update method.

The PPA can be added manually in the Konsole terminal with the command:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:kubuntu-ppa/backports

and packages then updated with

sudo apt full-upgrade

IMPORTANT

Please note that more bugfix releases are scheduled by KDE for Plasma 5.22, so while we feel these backports will be beneficial to enthusiastic adopters, users wanting to use a Plasma release with more rounds of stabilisation/bugfixes ‘baked in’ may find it advisable to stay with Plasma 5.21 as included in the original 21.04 (Hirsute) release.

The Kubuntu Backports PPA for 21.04 also currently contains newer versions of KDE Frameworks, Applications, and other KDE software. The PPA will also continue to receive updates of KDE packages other than...

Over the past few posts, I covered the hardware I picked up to setup a small LXD cluster and get it all setup at a co-location site near home. I’ve then gone silent for about 6 months, not because anything went wrong but just because of not quite finding the time to come back and complete this story!

So let’s pick things up where I left them with the last post and cover the last few bits of the network setup and then go over what happened over the past 6 months.

Routing in a HA environment

You may recall that the 3 servers are both connected to a top of the rack switch (bonded dual-gigabit) as well as connected to each other (bonded dual-10-gigabit). The netplan config in the previous post would allow each of the servers to talk to the others directly and establish a few VLANs on the link to the top of the rack switch.

Those are for:

  • WAN-HIVE: Peering VLAN with my provider containing their core routers and mine
  • INFRA-UPLINK: OVN uplink network (where all the OVN virtual routers get their external addresses)
  • INFRA-HOSTS: VLAN used for external communication with the servers
  • INFRA-BMC: VLAN used for the management ports of the servers (BMCs) and switch, isolated from...

The Linux Foundation

Decentralized innovation, built on trust.

Linuxtechi

Linux Today

Feed not found.