What is an operating system?

An operating system (OS) is the Application Which, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, oversees all the other application programs in a computer. The application programs make use of the working system by making Furthermore, users can interact directly with the operating system Via a user interface like a command line or a graphical user interface (GUI).

9 Popular Mobile Operating Systems

Android OS (Google Inc.) ...
2. Bada (Samsung Electronics) ...
BlackBerry OS (Research In Motion) ...
iPhone OS / iOS (Apple) ...
MeeGo OS (Nokia and Intel) ...
Palm OS (Garnet OS) ...
Symbian OS (Nokia) ...
webOS (Palm/HP) ...

Types of operating systems.

Operating systems normally include pre-loaded on almost any Computer you purchase. Many men and women use the operating system which comes with their computer, however it is possible to update or perhaps alter operating systems. The three most frequent operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux. A GUI enables you to use your mouse to click on icons, switches , and menus, and that which is clearly displayed on the display by means of a combo of images and text. Each operating system's GUI includes a different feel and look, so if you Switch to another operating system it might appear unfamiliar at first. However, modern operating systems have been made to be effortless to utilize , and the majority of the fundamental principles are exactly the same.

Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
Microsoft Windows
Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
macOS
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
Linux
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.
Operating systems for mobile devices
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.

Raspberry Pi 4

Sometimes, especially in the time of COVID-19, you can’t go onsite for a penetration test. Or maybe you can only get in briefly on a physical test, and want to leave behind a dropbox (literally, a box that can be “dropped” in place and let the tester leave, no relation to the file-sharing company by the same name) that you can remotely connect to. Of course, it could also be part of the desired test itself if incident response testing is in-scope – can they find your malicious device?

In all of these cases, one great option is a small single-board computer, the best known of which is the Raspberry Pi. It’s inexpensive, compact, easy to come by, and very flexible. It may not be perfect in every case, but it gets the job done in a lot of cases.

I’ll use this opportunity to discuss the setups I’ve done in the past and the things I would change when doing it again or alternatives I considered. I hope some will find this useful. Some familiarity with the Linux command line is assumed.

Table of Contents

  • General Principles of Dropboxes
  • Connecting Back
    • In Band
    • Out of Band
    • Tunnel Software
  • Setup & Challenges
    • Resiliency
    • Software

We just got home from a week of holidays in Norway, with lots of spectacular scenery and fresh air.

Energy consumption up and down the mountain.

The cabin was located about 900 meters above sea level. The first 600 meters climb from Oslo during the course of a few hours went by almost unnoticed. The last ~300 meters were for us from flat Denmark a bit more unusual.

Notice how the energy consumption of our Tesla 3 rose significantly during the last approx 600 meters climb to the cabin, and how the trip downhill actually charged the battery instead of using energy (the green area on the graph).

A very common problem in GStreamer, especially when working with live network streams, is that the source might just fail at some point. Your own network might have problems, the source of the stream might have problems, …

Without any special handling of such situations, the default behaviour in GStreamer is to simply report an error and let the application worry about handling it. The application might for example want to restart the stream, or it might simply want to show an error to the user, or it might want to show a fallback stream instead, telling the user that the stream is currently not available and then seamlessly switch back to the stream once it comes back.

Implementing all of the aforementioned is quite some effort, especially to do it in a robust way. To make it easier for applications I implemented a new plugin called fallbackswitch that contains two elements to automate this.

It is part of the GStreamer Rust plugins and also included in the recent 0.6.0 release, which can also be found on the Rust package (“crate”) repository crates.io.

Installation

For using the plugin you most likely first need to compile it yourself, unless you’re lucky enough that e.g. your...

Welcome to the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter, Issue 640 for the week of July 12 – 18, 2020. The full version of this issue is available here.

In this issue we cover:

  • Ubuntu 19.10 (Eoan Ermine) End of Life reached on July 17 2020
  • Ubuntu Stats
  • Hot in Support
  • LoCo Events
  • Popcon to be removed from the standard seed
  • Other Community News
  • Canonical News
  • In the Blogosphere
  • In Other News
  • Other Articles of Interest
  • Featured Audio and Video
  • Meeting Reports
  • Upcoming Meetings and Events
  • Updates and Security for 16.04, 18.04, 19.10, and 20.04
  • And much more!

The Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is brought to you by:

  • Krytarik Raido
  • Bashing-om
  • Chris Guiver
  • Wild Man
  • And many others

If you have a story idea for the Weekly Newsletter, join the Ubuntu News Team mailing list and submit it. Ideas can also be added to the wiki!

Except where otherwise noted, this issue of the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 License

Welcome to WordPress. This is your first post. Edit or delete it, then start writing!


Oracle’s Patch Reduces Boot Times By Almost Half
https://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=Oracle-Faster-Linux-Boot-PADATA
Inkscape 1.0 Released, Finally
https://inkscape.org/news/2020/05/04/introducing-inkscape-10/
Ubuntu Studio 20.10 To Ship With Plasma
https://ubuntustudio.org/2020/05/progress-on-plasma/
Ubuntu 20.04 Certifies the Pi
https://ubuntu.com/blog/ubuntu-20-04-lts-is-certified-for-the-raspberry-pi
Audacity Released 2.4, Withdrew It, Then Released It Again
https://www.audacityteam.org/audacity-2-4-0-released/
https://www.audacityteam.org/audacity-2-4-1-released/
Kid3 Goes from Hosted to Official KDE Application
https://kde.org/announcements/releases/2020-05-apps-update/
Patent Dispute with Gnome Settled
https://www.gnome.org/news/2020/05/patent-case-against-gnome-resolved/
Raspbian Changed to Raspberry Pi OS
https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/8gb-raspberry-pi-4-on-sale-now-at-75/
Linux Kernel 5.7 Released
http://lkml.iu.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/2005.3/09342.html
Pop! OS 20.04 LTS Out
https://blog.system76.com/post/616861064165031936/whats-new-with-popos-2004-lts

Clonezilla Live 2.6.6 Out

Kubuntu 19.10 Eoan Ermine was released on October 17th, 2019 with 9 months support.

As of July 17th, 2020, 19.10 reaches ‘end of life’.

No more package updates will be accepted to 19.10, and it will be archived to old-releases.ubuntu.com in the coming weeks.

The official end of life announcement for Ubuntu as a whole can be found here [1].

Kubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa continues to be supported.

Users of 19.10 can follow the Kubuntu 19.10 to 20.04 Upgrade [2] instructions.

Should for some reason your upgrade be delayed, and you find that the 19.10 repositories have been archived to old-releases.ubuntu.com, instructions to perform a EOL Upgrade can be found on the Ubuntu wiki [3].

Thank you for using Kubuntu 19.10 Eoan Ermine.

The Kubuntu team.

[1] – https://lists.ubuntu.com/archives/ubuntu-announce/2020-July/000258.htmll
[2] – https://help.ubuntu.com/community/FocalUpgrades/Kubuntu
[3] – https://help.ubuntu.com/community/EOLUpgrades

O Diogo finalmente recebeu uma encomenda e o Carrondo actualizou o seu KeepassXC, mas isto é a parte menos importante da conversa. Fiquem aí para um episódio do vosso podcast preferido!

Já sabem: oiçam, subscrevam e partilhem!

  • https://tmuxcheatsheet.com/?q=saear&hPP=100&idx=tmux_cheats&p=0&is_v=1
  • https://keepassxc.org/blog/2020-07-07-2.6.0-released/
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iLvWFtGYkvY
  • https://www.fxtec.com/
  • https://twitter.com/Mariogrip/status/1278342988859654144
  • https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/volla/volla-phone-designed-with-simplicity-and-security-in-mind/posts/2874940
  • https://twitter.com/thepine64/status/1281640445370667008
  • https://twitter.com/Realmikeleonard/status/1281728140923019264
  • https://open-store.io/app/heart.mateo-salta
  • https://github.com/rubencarneiro/android_device_lge_hammerhead/releases/tag/Halium-test-1.0
  • https://twitter.com/DMConstantino/status/1279742695955746816
  • https://twitter.com/DMConstantino/status/1279797058334048257
  • https://twitter.com/fkardame/status/1279800938228862983
  • https://ubuntuunity.org/
  • https://www.humblebundle.com/software/python-programming-software?partner=pup...

Ubuntu Studio 19.10 (Eoan Ermine) was released October 17, 2019 and will reach End of Life on Friday, July 17, 2020. This means that after that date there will be no further security updates or bugfixes released. We highly recommend that you update to 20.04 LTS immediately if you are... Continue reading

This week we’ve been filling in forms and doing kitchen renovations. We discuss popularity contest being removed from Ubuntu, 19.10 going EOL, KDEs cross-platform storefront and Linux adopting inclusive language. We also round up our picks from the wider tech news and share an event; remember those!

It’s Season 13 Episode 17 of the Ubuntu Podcast! Alan Pope, Mark Johnson and Martin Wimpress are connected and speaking to your brain.

In this week’s show:

  • We discuss what we’ve been up to recently:
    • Alan has been filling in Form E.
    • Mark has been doing kitchen renovations(!)
  • We discuss community news:
    • The “popularity contest” package will be removed from future versions of ubuntu
    • Ubuntu 19.10 – Eoan Ermine goes EOL
    • KDE Applications App Stores and Downloads
    • Linux Adopts Inclusive Language
  • We mention some events:
    • Linux Application Summit: 12 to 14 of November 2020 – Online!
  • We discuss the news:
    • The UK government has ordered that Huawei kit be removed from the UK’s 5G network
    • Nokia is not dead
    • Flutter comes to desktop linux
  • Image credit: Les Triconautes
  • We are running a crowd funder to cover our audio production costs on Patreon.
  • You can listen to the Ubuntu Podcast back catalogue...

It has been quite a while since the last status update for the GStreamer Rust bindings and the GStreamer Rust plugins, so the new releases last week make for a good opportunity to do so now.

Bindings

I won’t write too much about the bindings this time. The latest version as of now is 0.16.1, which means that since I started working on the bindings there were 8 major releases. In that same time there were 45 contributors working on the bindings, which seems quite a lot and really makes me happy.

Just as before, I don’t think any major APIs are missing from the bindings anymore, even for implementing subclasses of the various GStreamer types. The wide usage of the bindings in Free Software projects and commercial products also shows both the interest in writing GStreamer applications and plugins in Rust as well as that the bindings are complete enough and production-ready.

Most of the changes since the last status update involve API cleanups, usability improvements, various bugfixes and addition of minor API that was not included before. The details of all changes can be read in the changelog.

The bindings work with any GStreamer version since 1.8 (released more than 4 years...

A customized TurtleBot3 robot featuring the LIDAR laser range finder

Interested in getting started in robotics? There’s no need to purchase expensive hardware before you try some things out: simulate a TurtleBot3 instead! The simulator is complete with LIDAR, a camera, a gyro and many other sensors and actuators.

You can also see this installation in action at the Ubuntu Robotics YouTube channel.

Software used for the simulation includes the robot operating system (ROS), a simulation framework (Gazebo) and the robot software (TurtleBot).

  • The Robot Operating System (ROS) provides the fundamental framework for interacting with hardware and overall control of the robot.
  • The Gazebo simulator emulates robot hardware in software to provide input to ROS.
  • The TurtleBot 3 WafflePi from Robotis software includes ROS code to run the robot and configuration files for Gazebo.

We intend to install on Foxy (the latest LTS ROS release), which drives the version requirements for the rest of the installation: Ubuntu 20.04 Focal, Gazebo 11, and the ROS 2 installation of TurtleBot3.

Install ROS

This simulator requires a standard installation of ROS Foxy. While ROS can be installed directly on a Linux workstation, it can also be installed in a ...

A customized TurtleBot3 robot featuring the LIDAR laser range finder

Interested in getting started in robotics? There’s no need to purchase expensive hardware before you try some things out: simulate a TurtleBot3 instead! The simulator is complete with LIDAR, a camera, a gyro and many other sensors and actuators.

You can also see this installation in action at the Ubuntu Robotics YouTube channel.

Software used for the simulation includes the robot operating system (ROS), a simulation framework (Gazebo) and the robot software (TurtleBot).

  • The Robot Operating System (ROS) provides the fundamental framework for interacting with hardware and overall control of the robot.
  • The Gazebo simulator emulates robot hardware in software to provide input to ROS.
  • The TurtleBot 3 WafflePi from Robotis software includes ROS code to run the robot and configuration files for Gazebo.

We intend to install on Foxy (the latest LTS ROS release), which drives the version requirements for the rest of the installation: Ubuntu 20.04 Focal, Gazebo 11, and the ROS 2 installation of TurtleBot3.

Install ROS

This simulator requires a standard installation of ROS Foxy. While ROS can be installed directly on a Linux workstation, it can also be installed in a ...

Mas que festa! o trio fantástico juntou-se de novo e fez do centésimo episódio uma festa ainda mais especial. A juntar a tudo isto, ainda batemos recordes de assistência no dia em que atingimos a marca dos 3 dígitos.

Já sabem: oiçam, subscrevam e partilhem!

  • https://archive.fosdem.org/2019/schedule/event/full_software_freedom/
  • https://www.meetup.com/ubuntupt/events/272030883/
  • https://www.humblebundle.com/books/data-science-essentials-books?partner=PUP
  • https://www.humblebundle.com/books/programming-for-makers-make-co-books?partner=PUP
  • https://libretrend.com/specs/librebox

Apoios

Podem apoiar o podcast usando os links de afiliados do Humble Bundle, porque ao usarem esses links para fazer uma compra, uma parte do valor que pagam reverte a favor do Podcast Ubuntu Portugal.
E podem obter tudo isso com 15 dólares ou diferentes partes dependendo de pagarem 1, ou 8.
Achamos que isto vale bem mais do que 15 dólares, pelo que se puderem paguem mais um pouco mais visto que têm a opção de pagar o quanto quiserem.

Se estiverem interessados em outros bundles não listados nas notas usem o link https://www.humblebundle.com/?partner=PUP e vão estar também a apoiar-nos.

Atribuição e licenças

Este...

A Debian LTS logo Like each month, here comes a report about the work of paid contributors to Debian LTS.

Individual reports

In June, 202.00 work hours have been dispatched among 12 paid contributors. Their reports are available:
  • Abhijith PA did 8h (out of 14h assigned), thus carrying over 6h to July.
  • Ben Hutchings did 20h (out of 20h assigned).
  • Brian May did 10h (out of 10h assigned).
  • Chris Lamb did 18h (out of 18h assigned).
  • Emilio Pozuelo Monfort did 4h from his backlog of 58.25h from May, thus carrying over 54.25h to July.
  • Markus Koschany did 60h (out of 48.25h backlog from May and 11.75h extra hours manually assigned).
  • Mike Gabriel did 8h (out of 8h assigned).
  • Ola Lundqvist did 12.5h (out of 12h assigned and 7.5h from May), thus carrying over 7h to July.
  • Roberto C. Sánchez did 28.75h (out of 30h assigned), thus carrying over 1.25h to July.
  • Sylvain Beucler did 30h (out of 30h assigned).
  • Thorsten Alteholz did 30h (out of 30h assigned).
  • Utkarsh Gupta did 30h (out of 30h assigned).

Evolution of the situation

June was the last month of Jessie LTS which ended on 2020-06-20. If you still need to run Jessie somewhere, please read the post about keeping...

This week we’ve been making operating systems for the Raspberry Pi 4. We discuss our favourite gadgets, bring you a verrrry long command line love and round up all your wonderful feedback.

It’s Season 13 Episode 18 of the Ubuntu Podcast! Alan Pope, Mark Johnson and Martin Wimpress are connected and speaking to your brain.

In this week’s show:

  • We discuss what we’ve been up to recently:
    • Martin has been making Ubuntu MATE 20.04 for the Raspberry Pi 4.
  • We discuss some of our favourite gadgets.
  • We share a Command Line Lurve:
    • A very, very long command line love
lsblk -bdno NAME,SIZE | grep -v loop | while read dev size; do model=$(</sys/block/$dev/device/model); hours=$(sudo smartctl -a /dev/${dev} | awk '/Power_On_Hours/ { gsub(/h.*/, "", $10); print $10 }'); years=$(bc <<< "scale=2; $hours / 24 / 365.25"); size_tib=$(bc <<< "scale=4; $size / 1024 / 1024 / 1024 / 1024"); printf "%s %6d hours (%5.2f years) %.2fTiB %sn" $dev $hours $years $size_tib "$model"; done | sort -rnk 2

sdd  50346 hours ( 5.74 years) 2.73TiB TOSHIBA DT01ACA3
sdc  50346 hours ( 5.74 years) 2.73TiB TOSHIBA DT01ACA3
sda  50345 hours ( 5.74 years) 2.73TiB TOSHIBA DT01ACA3
sdb  50062 hours ( 5.71 years) 2.73TiB...

The Ubuntu Podcast did a review in their new edition of the KDE’s Applications site.  Listen from 14 minutes in.  You can hear such quotes as

“It’s pretty neat, It shows the breadth of applications in the KDE universe, tonnes of stuff in here”
“A big green button to install the thing”
“KDE applications are broad and useful”
“They publish a tonne of applications in the Snap store and they are hugely popular”
“Valuable software that people want to install and use irrespective of the desktop they are on”
“They make high quality and useful applications”
“Well done KDE, always very mindful of user experience”

They did suggest adding a featured app, which is a task we also want to do for Discover which has featured apps but they don’t currently change. That feels like an interesting wee task for anyone who wants to help out KDE.

But more easy would be the task of going over all the apps and checking the info on them is up to date, including going over the various app stores we publish on like the Microsoft Store and making sure those links are in the Appstream meta-data files.

Finally, the main task of All About the Apps is getting the apps onto the stores so we need people who can...

For those of you using the Ubuntu Studio Backports Repository, we recently had a major update of some tools. If you’ve been using the Backports PPA, you may have noticed some breakage when updating via normal means. To update if you have the Backports PPA enabled, make sure to do... Continue reading

What I've tried.

  1. Firefox beta as a snap. (Definitely easy to install. But not as quick and harder to use for managing files - makes it's own Downloads directory, etc)
  2. Firefox (stock) with custom AppArmor confinement. (Fun to do once, but the future is clearly using portals for file access, etc)
  3. Firefox beta as a Flatpak.

I've now been running Firefox as a Flatpak for over 4 months and have not had any blocking issues.

Getting it installed

Flatpak - already installed on Fedora SilverBlue (comes with Firefox with some Fedora specific optimizations) and EndlessOS at least

Follow Quick Setup. This walks you through installing the Flatpak package as well as the Flathub repo. Now you could easily install Firefox with just 'flatpak install firefox' if you want the Stable Firefox.

To get the beta you need to add the Flathub Beta repo. You can just run:

sudo flatpak remote-add flathub-beta htps://flathub.org/beta-repo/flathub-beta.flatpakrepo

Then to install Firefox from it do (You can also choose to install as a user and not using sudo with the --user flag):

sudo flatpak install flathub-beta firefox

Once you run the above commend it will ask you which Firefox to install, install...

Better late than never as we say… thanks to the work of Daniel Leidert and Jorge Maldonado Ventura, we managed to complete the update of my book for Debian 10 Buster.

You can get the electronic version on debian-handbook.info or the paperback version on lulu.com. Or you can just read it online.

Translators are busy updating their translations, with German and Norvegian Bokmal leading the way…

One comment | Liked this article? Click here. | My blog is Flattr-enabled.

Welcome to the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter, Issue 641 for the week of July 19 – 25, 2020. The full version of this issue is available here.

In this issue we cover:

  • Ubuntu Stats
  • Hot in Support
  • LoCo Events
  • Mir 2.0.0 Release
  • All About the Apps Junior Jobs
  • Major Backports Update
  • Other Community News
  • Canonical News
  • In the Blogosphere
  • Other Articles of Interest
  • Featured Audio and Video
  • Meeting Reports
  • Upcoming Meetings and Events
  • Updates and Security for 16.04, 18.04, and 20.04
  • And much more!

The Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is brought to you by:

  • Krytarik Raido
  • Bashing-om
  • Chris Guiver
  • Wild Man
  • And many others

If you have a story idea for the Weekly Newsletter, join the Ubuntu News Team mailing list and submit it. Ideas can also be added to the wiki!

Except where otherwise noted, this issue of the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 License

En Ubuntu 20.04 se incluyó la última versión de Nautilus y la gestión de los ficheros en el escritorio se realiza a través de una extensión de GNOME. Si bien emula correctamente que podamos gestionar ficheros en el escritorio, tiene algunas carencias importantes como no poder arrastrar desde Nautilus al escritorio, atajos de teclado… En este vídeo te muestro todos los pasos para sustituir Nautilus por Nemo y conseguir un escritorio totalmente funcional:

I can already hear some readers saying that backups are an IT problem, and not a security problem. The reality, of course, is that they’re both. Information security is commonly thought of in terms of the CIA Triad – that is, Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability, and it’s important to remember those concepts when dealing with backups.

We need look no farther than the troubles Garmin is having in dealing with a ransomware attack to find evidence that backups are critical. It’s unclear whether Garmin lacked adequate backups, had their backups ransomware’d, or is struggling to restore from backups. (It’s possible that they never considered an issue of this scale and simply aren’t resourced to restore this quickly, but given that the outage remains a complete outage after 4 days, I’d bet on one of those 3 conditions.)

So what does a security professional need to know about backups? Every organization is different, so I’m not going to try to provide a formula or tutorial for how to do backups, but rather discuss the security concepts in dealing with backups.

Before I got into security, I was both a Site Reliability Engineer (SRE) and a Systems Administrator, so I’ve...

This week we’ve been helping HMRC and throwing a 10th birthday party. We discuss “Rolling Rhino”, split personality snaps, UBPorts supporting Project Treble devices, ZFS on Ubuntu 20.04 plus our round-up from the tech news.

It’s Season 13 Episode 15 of the Ubuntu Podcast! Alan Pope, Mark Johnson and Martin Wimpress are connected and speaking to your brain.

In this week’s show:

  • We discuss what we’ve been up to recently:
    • Mark has doing user testing for HMRC.
    • Martin has been doing a lockdown 10th birthday.
  • We discuss community news:
    • Ubuntu “Rolling Rhino”; as seen on YouTube
    • Split Personality Snaps
    • UBports GSI brings Ubuntu Touch to any Project Treble-supported Android devices
    • ZFS focus on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS: ZSys properties on ZFS datasets
  • We discuss the news:
    • THEVIC20 is a full size re-imagined version of Commodore’s ‘wonder computer’ from the 1980s
    • Apple has announced that Macs will be moving away from Intel chips
    • UK virus-tracing app switches to Apple-Google model
    • Mozilla partner with Comcast to enable DNS-over-HTTPS
  • Image credit: The Creative Exchange
  • We are running a crowd funder to cover our audio production costs on Patreon.
  • You can listen to the Ubuntu Podcast back...

While there is a node-red snap in the snap store (to be found at https://snapcraft.io/node-red with the source at https://github.com/dceejay/nodered.snap) it does not really allow you to do a lot with it on i.e. a Raspberry Pi if you want to read sensor data that does not actually come in via the network …

The snap is missing all essential interfaces that could be used for any sensor access (gpio, i2c, Bluetooth, spi or serial-port) and it does not even come with basics like hardware-observe, system-observe or mount-observe to get any systemic info from the device it runs on.

While the missing interfaces are indeed a problem, there is the fact that strict snap packages need to be self contained and hardly have any ability to dynamically compile any software …. Now, if you know nodejs and npm (or yarn or gyp) you know that additional node modules often need to compile back-end code and libraries when you add them to your nodejs install. Technically it is actually possible to make “npm install” work but it is indeed hard to predict what a user may want to install in her installation so you would also have to ship all possible build systems (gcc, perl, python, you name it)
plus all...

Are you running the development release of Kubuntu Groovy Gorilla 20.10, or wanting to try the daily live ISO?

Plasma 5.19 has now landed in 20.10 and is available for testing. You can read about the new features and improvements in Plasma 5.19 in the official KDE release announcement.

Kubuntu is part of the KDE community, so this testing will benefit both Kubuntu as well as upstream KDE Plasma software, which is used by many other distributions too.

The Kubuntu development release is not recommended for production systems. If you require a stable release, please see our LTS releases on our downloads page.

Getting the release:

If you are already running Kubuntu 20.10 development release, then you will receive (or have already received) Plasma 5.19 in new updates.

If you wish to test the live session via the daily ISO, or install the development release, the daily ISO can be obtained from this link.

Testing:

  • If you believe you might have found a packaging bug, you can use a launchpad.net to post testing feedback to the Kubuntu team as a bug, or;
  • If you believe you have found a bug in the underlying software, then bugs.kde.org is the best place to file your bug...

Welcome to the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter, Issue 637 for the week of June 21 – 27, 2020. The full version of this issue is available here.

In this issue we cover:

  • Ubuntu Stats
  • Hot in Support
  • LoCo Events
  • Groovy to use GRUB2 for booting installer media in any modes on all architectures
  • Egmde: updated features
  • Canonical News
  • In the Blogosphere
  • In Other News
  • Other Articles of Interest
  • Featured Audio and Video
  • Meeting Reports
  • Upcoming Meetings and Events
  • Updates and Security for 16.04, 18.04, 19.10, and 20.04
  • And much more!

The Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is brought to you by:

  • Krytarik Raido
  • Bashing-om
  • Chris Guiver
  • Wild Man
  • And many others

If you have a story idea for the Weekly Newsletter, join the Ubuntu News Team mailing list and submit it. Ideas can also be added to the wiki!

Except where otherwise noted, this issue of the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 License

OpenUK Awards are nearly closed. Do you know of projects that deserve recognition?
 
Openuk.uk/awards
Entries close midnight ending UTC tomorrow
 
Individual, young person or open source software, open Hardware or open data project or company
 
The awards are open to individuals resident in the UK in the last year and projects and organisations with notable open source contributions from individuals resident in the UK in the last year.

This month:
* Command & Conquer
* How-To : Python, Ubuntu On a 2-in-1 Tablet, and Rawtherapee
* Graphics : Inkscape
* Graphics : Krita for Old Photos
* Linux Loopback
* Everyday Ubuntu : Starting Again
Ubports Touch
* Review : Kubuntu, and Xubuntu 20.04
* Ubuntu Games : Into The Breach
plus: News, My Opinion, The Daily Waddle, Q&A, and more.

Get it while it’s hot! https://fullcirclemagazine.org/issue-158/

Um episódio equilibrado pelo desequilíbrio natural a que os 2 oradores de serviço vos têm habituado. A caminho do centésimo episódio, deleitem-se com mais esta aventura do PUP.

Já sabem: oiçam, subscrevam e partilhem!

  • https://libretrend.com/specs/librebox
  • https://www.humblebundle.com/books/technology-essentials-for-business-manning-publications-books?partner=PUP
  • https://www.humblebundle.com/books/circuits-electronics-morgan-claypool-books?partner=PUP

Apoios

Podem apoiar o podcast usando os links de afiliados do Humble Bundle, porque ao usarem esses links para fazer uma compra, uma parte do valor que pagam reverte a favor do Podcast Ubuntu Portugal.
E podem obter tudo isso com 15 dólares ou diferentes partes dependendo de pagarem 1, ou 8.
Achamos que isto vale bem mais do que 15 dólares, pelo que se puderem paguem mais um pouco mais visto que têm a opção de pagar o quanto quiserem.

Se estiverem interessados em outros bundles não listados nas notas usem o link https://www.humblebundle.com/?partner=PUP e vão estar também a apoiar-nos.

Atribuição e licenças

Este episódio foi produzido por Diogo Constantino e Tiago Carrondo e editado por Alexandre Carrapiço, o Senhor Podcast.

A...

Encryption, Hashing, and Encoding are commonly confused topics by those new to the information security field. I see these confused even by experienced software engineers, by developers, and by new hackers. It’s really important to understand the differences – not just for semantics, but because the actual uses of them are vastly different.

I do not claim to be the first to try to clarify this distinction, but there’s still a lack of clarity, and I wanted to include some exercises for you to give a try. I’m a very hands-on person myself, so I’m hoping the hands-on examples are useful.

Encoding

Encoding is a manner of transforming some data from one representation to another in a manner that can be reversed. This encoding can be used to make data pass through interfaces that restrict byte values (e.g., character sets), or allow data to be printed, or other transformations that allow data to be consumed by another system. Some of the most commonly known encodings include hexadecimal, Base 64, and URL Encoding.

Reversing encoding results in the exact input given (i.e., is lossless), and can be done deterministically and requires no information other than the...

This article originally appeared on Joshua Powers’ blog

Ubuntu is the industry-leading operating system for use in the cloud. Every day millions of Ubuntu instances are launched in private and public clouds around the world. Canonical takes pride in offering support for the latest cloud features and functionality.

As of today, all Ubuntu Amazon Web Services (AWS) Marketplace listings are now updated to include support for the new Graviton2 instance types. Graviton2 is Amazon’s next-generation ARM processor delivering increased performance at a lower cost. This announcement includes three new instances types:

  • M6g for general-purpose workloads with a balance of CPU, memory, and network resources
  • C6g for compute-optimized workloads such as encoding, modeling, and gaming
  • R6g for memory-optimized workloads, which process large datasets in memory like databases

Users on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal) can take advantage of additional optimizations found on newer ARM-based processors. The large-system extensions (LSE) are enabled by using the included libc6-lse package, which can result in orders of magnitude performance improvements. Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic) will shortly be...

Uma bonita conversa sobre a vida, os animais, a sociedade de consumo e o estado geral das coisas. Entre pinephones e copos de vinho branco, assim se fez mais 1 episódio do PUP.

Já sabem: oiçam, subscrevam e partilhem!

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p2Q_SQKK7EQ
  • https://makealinux.app/
  • https://discourse.ubuntu.com/t/graphical-desktop-in-multipass/16229/5
  • https://www.humblebundle.com/software/python-programming-software?partner=pup
  • https://www.humblebundle.com/books/protect-your-stuff-apress-books?partner=pup
  • https://www.humblebundle.com/books/technology-essentials-for-business-manning-publications-books?partner=pup
  • https://www.humblebundle.com/books/data-science-essentials-books?partner=PUP
  • https://www.humblebundle.com/books/circuits-electronics-morgan-claypool-books?partner=PUP
  • https://libretrend.com/specs/librebox

Apoios

Podem apoiar o podcast usando os links de afiliados do Humble Bundle, porque ao usarem esses links para fazer uma compra, uma parte do valor que pagam reverte a favor do Podcast Ubuntu Portugal.
E podem obter tudo isso com 15 dólares ou diferentes partes dependendo de pagarem 1, ou 8.
Achamos que isto vale bem mais do que 15 dólares, pelo que se puderem paguem...

KDE is All About the Apps as I hope everyone knows, we have top quality apps that we are pushing out to all channels to spread freedom and goodness.

As part of promoting our apps we updated the kde.org/applications pages so folks can find out what we make.  Today we’ve added some important new features:

Here on the KMyMoney page you can see the lovely new release that they made recently along with the source download link.

The “Install on Linux” link has been there for a while and uses the Appstream ID to open Discover which will offer you the install based on any installation source known to Discover: Packagekit, Snap or Flatpak.

Here in the Krita page you can see it now offers downloads from the Microsoft Store and from Google Play.

Or if you prefer a direct download it links to AppImages, macOS and Windows installs.

And here’s the KDE connect page where you can see they are true Freedom Lovers and have it on the F-Droid store.

All of this needs some attention from people who do the releases.  The KDE Appstream Guidelines has the info on how to add this metadata.  Remember it needs added to master branch as that is what the website scans. 

There is some tooling to help,...

This week we’ve been re-installing Ubuntu 20.04. Following WWDC, we discuss Linux Desktop aspirations, bring you some command line love and go over all your wonderful feedback.

It’s Season 13 Episode 16 of the Ubuntu Podcast! Alan Pope, Mark Johnson and Martin Wimpress are connected and speaking to your brain.

In this week’s show:

  • We discuss what we’ve been up to recently:
    • Alan has been re-installing Ubuntu.
  • We discuss Linux Desktop aspirations.
  • We share a Command Line Lurve:
    • bashtop – “the cool top alternative”.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:bashtop-monitor/bashtop
sudo apt update
sudo apt install bashtop
bashtop
  • And we go over all your amazing feedback – thanks for sending it – please keep sending it!
    • Rolling Rhino Illustration
    • Grumpy Groundhog
  • Image credit: Zdeněk Macháček
  • We are running a crowd funder to cover our audio production costs on Patreon.
  • You can listen to the Ubuntu Podcast back catalogue on YouTube.

That’s all for this week! If there’s a topic you’d like us to discuss, or you have any feedback on previous shows, please send your comments and suggestions to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or Tweet us or Toot us or Comment on our Facebook page or comment on our...

Updates are an integral part of the software lifecycle. Quite often, they bring improvements, vital security patches – and sometimes, unfortunately, bugs, too. In mission-critical environments, it is important to assert a high degree of oversight and precision over updates.

Snaps come with a built-in automatic update mechanism, whereby snaps are refreshed to a new version whenever there’s a new release in the Snap Store. Typically, the refresh occurs four times a day, and in the vast majority of cases, they will complete seamlessly, without any issues. However, there are cases when and where snap updates need to be deferred or postponed, or simply managed with a greater, more refined level of control. There are several ways the users can achieve that.

Snap (refresh) control

The snap updates schedule is governed by four system-wide options. These include:

  • Refresh.timer – Defines the refresh frequency and schedule. You can use this parameter to set when the snaps will refresh, so this does not conflict with your other activities – like work meetings, data backups, or similar.
  • Refresh.hold – Delays the next refresh until the defined time and date. The hold option allows...

Ubuntu is the industry-leading operating system for use in the cloud. Every day millions of Ubuntu instances are launched in private and public clouds around the world. Canonical takes pride in offering support for the latest cloud features and functionality. As of today, all Ubuntu Amazon Web Services (AWS) Marketplace listings are now updated to include support for the new Graviton2 instance types. Graviton2 is Amazon’s next-generation ARM processor delivering increased performance at a lower cost.

Welcome to the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter, Issue 638 for the week of June 28 – July 4, 2020. The full version of this issue is available here.

In this issue we cover:

  • Ubuntu 19.10 (Eoan Ermine) reaches End of Life on July 17 2020
  • Ubuntu Stats
  • Hot in Support
  • LoCo Events
  • Ubuntu Education (UbuntuEd)
  • Li-f-e: Linux for Education 20.04 is out now!
  • Plasma 5.19 testing in Groovy Gorilla
  • Canonical News
  • In the Blogosphere
  • Featured Audio and Video
  • Meeting Reports
  • Upcoming Meetings and Events
  • Updates and Security for 16.04, 18.04, 19.10, and 20.04
  • And much more!

The Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is brought to you by:

  • Krytarik Raido
  • Bashing-om
  • Chris Guiver
  • Wild Man
  • And many others

If you have a story idea for the Weekly Newsletter, join the Ubuntu News Team mailing list and submit it. Ideas can also be added to the wiki!

Except where otherwise noted, this issue of the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 License

A couple years ago I was a part of a discussion about encrypted messaging.

  • I was in the Signal camp - we needed it to be quick and easy to setup for users to get setup. Using existing phone numbers makes it easy.
  • Others were in the Matrix camp - we need to start from scratch and make it distributed so no one organization is in control. We should definitely not tie it to phone numbers.

I was wrong.

Signal has been moving in the direction of adding PINs for some time because they realize the danger of relying on the phone number system. Signal just mandated PINs for everyone as part of that switch. Good for security? I really don't think so. They did it so you could recover some bits of "profile, settings, and who you’ve blocked".

Before PIN

If you lose your phone your profile is lost and all message data is lost too. When you get a new phone and install Signal your contacts are alerted that your Safety Number has changed - and should be re-validated.

>>Where profile data lives1318.60060075387.1499999984981Where profile data livesYour Devices

After PIN

If you lost your phone you can use your PIN to recover some parts of your profile and other information. I am unsure if...

Lubuntu 19.10 (Eoan Ermine) was released October 17, 2019 and will reach End of Life on Friday, July 17, 2020. This means that after that date there will be no further security updates or bugfixes released. We highly recommend that you update to 20.04 as soon as possible if you are still running 19.10. After […]


Ubuntu 20.04 Released
https://www.omgubuntu.co.uk/2020/04/download-ubuntu-20-04
Ubuntu Survey Results
https://ubuntu.com/blog/ubuntu-20-04-survey-results
Fedora 32 Released
https://fedoramagazine.org/announcing-fedora-32/
Lenovo Now Shipping Fedora on Thinkpads
https://fedoramagazine.org/coming-soon-fedora-on-lenovo-laptops/
Manjaro 20 Released
https://forum.manjaro.org/t/manjaro-20-0-lysia-released/138633
Bug In Git May Leak Credentials
https://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=Git-Newline-Leak-Vulnerability
Linux Kernel 5.7 rc4 Out
https://lkml.org/lkml/2020/5/3/306

Linux Kernel 5.5 Is Now End of Life
http://lkml.iu.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/2004.2/07196.html

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.2 Out
https://www.redhat.com/archives/rhelv6-list/2020-April/msg00000.html

Parrot 4.9 Out
https://parrotsec.org/blog/parrot-4.9-release-notes/

IPFire 2.25 Core Update 143 Out
https://blog.ipfire.org/post/ipfire-2-25-core-update-143-released

Oracle Virtualbox 6.1.6 Out
https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Changelog-6.1

LibreOffice 6.4.3 Out
https://blog.documentfoundation.org/blog/2020/04/16/libreoffice-6-4-3/

Proton 5.0-6 Out

The Linux community is a fascinating and powerful space.

When I joined the Ubuntu project approximately five years ago, I (vaguely at the time) understood that there was a profound sense of community and passion everywhere that is difficult to find in other spaces. My involvement has increased, and so has my understanding. I had thought of starting a blog as a means of conveying the information that I stumbled across, but my writing skills were very crude and regrettable, being in my early teenage years.

I have finally decided to take the leap. In this blog, I would like to occasionally provide updates on my work, either through focused deep dives on a particular topic, or broad updates on low hanging fruit that has been eliminated. While the articles may be somewhat spontaneous, I decided that an initial post was in order to explain my goals. Feel free to subscribe for more detailed posts in the future, as there are many more to come.

I actually wanted to move on with the node-red series of blog posts, but noticed that there is something more pressing to write down first …

People (on the snapcraft.io forum or IRC) often ask about “how would i build a package for Ubuntu Core” …

If your Ubuntu Core device is i.e. a Raspberry Pi you won’t easily be able to build for its armhf or arm64 target architecture on your PC which makes development harder.

You can use the snapcraft.io auto-build service that builds for all supported arches automatically or use fabrica but if you want to iterate fast over your code, waiting for the auto-builds is quite time consuming. Others i heard of simply have two SD cards in use, one running classic Ubuntu Server and the second one running Ubuntu Core so you can switch them around to test your code on Core after building on Server … Not really ideal either and if you do not have two Raspberry Pis this ends in a lot reboots, eating your development time.

There is help !

There is an easy way to do your development on Ubuntu Core by simply using an LXD container directly on the device … you can make code changes and quickly build inside the container, pull the created snap package out...

I thought about using a clickbait title like “Is this the best web security book?”, but I just couldn’t do that to you all. Instead, I want to compare and contrast 3 books, all of which I consider great books about web security. I won’t declare any single book “the best” because that’s too subjective. Best depends on where you’re coming from and what you’re trying to achieve.

The 3 books I’m taking a look at are:

  • Real-World Bug Hunting: A Field Guide to Web Hacking
  • The Web Application Hacker’s Handbook: Finding and Exploiting Security Flaws
  • The Tangled Web: A Guide to Securing Modern Web Applications

Real-World Bug Hunting: A Field Guide to Web Hacking

Real World Bug Hunting

  • Author: Peter Yaworksi
  • Published: 2019 by No Starch Press
  • 264 Pages
  • Amazon
  • No Starch Press

Real-World Bug Hunting is the most recent of the books in this group, and it shows. It covers up to date vulnerabilities and mitigations, such as the samesite attribute for cookies, Content Security Policy, and more. As its name suggests, it has a clear focus on finding bugs, and goes into just enough detail about each bug class to help you understand the underlying risks posed by a vulnerability.

The book covers the...

A few months ago I wrote a new GStreamer plugin: an audio filter for live loudness normalization and automatic gain control.

The plugin can be found as part of the GStreamer Rust plugin in the audiofx plugin. It’s also included in the recent 0.6.0 release of the GStreamer Rust plugins and available from crates.io.

Its code is based on Kyle Swanson’s great FFmpeg filter af_loudnorm, about which he wrote some more technical details on his blog a few years back. I’m not going to repeat all that here, if you’re interested in those details and further links please read Kyle’s blog post.

From a very high-level, the filter works by measuring the loudness of the input following the EBU R128 standard with a 3s lookahead, adjusts the gain to reach the target loudness and then applies a true peak limiter with 10ms to prevent any too high peaks to get passed through. Both the target loudness and the maximum peak can be configured via the loudness-target and max-true-peak properties, same as in the FFmpeg filter. Different to the FFmpeg filter I only implemented the “live” mode and not the two-pass mode that is implemented in FFmpeg, which first measures the loudness of the whole stream and...

One of my dedicated servers on OVH didn’t get back online after a reboot, so I checked via KVM and found that it was stuck at GRUB 2 prompt. To solve the problem, I changed netboot to rescue mode from OVH control panel, and with the rescue mode SSH credentials emailed to me, performed the […]

The post Bootloader Fix on NVMe Drive appeared first on Cyber Kingdom of Russell John.

kde.org/applications now has latest release versions and dates on it.  Finally you can check your app store or distro is up to date 🙂

This was added to the website by elite new contributor David Barchiesi and there’s been a year of faff in the background getting it added to the release process in various places, but if apps are missing it then talk to the app maintainers to get it added.

Our All About the Apps Goal has plenty more tasks to be done if you want to help out, some website related, many packaging related to get apps into more Stores and some about making docs and videos etc to help encourage getting more KDE apps to more people.

 

Jonathan Riddell will be talking about KDE’s “All About the Apps” goal this Friday at OpenUK’s Future Leader’s Training. Register by mailing This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

https://openuk.uk/event-calendar/kde-operating-systems-and-apps/

Quick and dirty

  • Install python3-virtualenvwrapper (via pip or via package manager)
  • Export a workon directory: export WORKON_HOME=/home/foursixnine/Projects/python-virtualenv
  • source virtualenvwrapper
foursixnine@deimos:~/Projects> source virtualenvwrapper    
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /home/foursixnine/Projects/python-virtualenv/premkproject
...
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /home/foursixnine/Projects/python-virtualenv/get_env_details
  • mkvirtualenv newenv
foursixnine@deimos:~/Projects> mkvirtualenv newenv
created virtual environment CPython3.8.3.final.0-64 in 115ms
  creator CPython3Posix(dest=/home/foursixnine/Projects/python-virtualenv/newenv, clear=False, global=False)
  seeder FromAppData(download=False, pip=latest, setuptools=latest, wheel=latest, via=copy, app_data_dir=/home/foursixnine/.local/share/virtualenv/seed-app-data/v1.0.1)
  activators BashActivator,CShellActivator,FishActivator,PowerShellActivator,PythonActivator,XonshActivator
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating /home/foursixnine/Projects/python-virtualenv/newenv/bin/predeactivate
...
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts creating...


Paragon Software Unhappy about exFAT in Kernel 5.7
https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2020/03/the-exfat-filesystem-is-coming-to-linux-paragon-softwares-not-happy-about-it/
Debian Announces Biohackathon
https://lists.debian.org/debian-devel-announce/2020/03/msg00010.html
Linux Mint 20 will be named Ulyana
https://blog.linuxmint.com/?p=3887
GNU Guix Plans Addition of Hurd Micro-Kernel
https://guix.gnu.org/blog/2020/a-hello-world-virtual-machine-running-the-hurd/
Huawei Signs Non-Agression Patent Pact with Open Invention Network
https://www.theregister.com/2020/04/02/huawei_open_invention_network/
Ubuntu 20.04 Beta Out
https://lists.ubuntu.com/archives/ubuntu-announce/2020-April/000255.html

RHEL 7.8 Out
https://www.redhat.com/archives/rhelv6-list/2020-March/msg00000.html

OpenMediaVault 5.0 Out

https://www.openmediavault.org/?p=2685
Gnome 3.36.1 Out
https://mail.gnome.org/archives/gnome-announce-list/2020-April/msg00001.html

Pinephone with UBPorts Out
https://www.pine64.org/2020/04/02/pinephone-ubports-community-edition-pre-orders-now-open/

OpenEuler 20.03 Out
https://www.huawei.com/en/press-events/news/2020/3/openeuler-lts-open-source-operating-system

Wireguard 1.0.0 Out

The Linux Foundation

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