What is an operating system?

An operating system (OS) is the Application Which, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, oversees all the other application programs in a computer. The application programs make use of the working system by making Furthermore, users can interact directly with the operating system Via a user interface like a command line or a graphical user interface (GUI).

9 Popular Mobile Operating Systems

Android OS (Google Inc.) ...
2. Bada (Samsung Electronics) ...
BlackBerry OS (Research In Motion) ...
iPhone OS / iOS (Apple) ...
MeeGo OS (Nokia and Intel) ...
Palm OS (Garnet OS) ...
Symbian OS (Nokia) ...
webOS (Palm/HP) ...

Types of operating systems.

Operating systems normally include pre-loaded on almost any Computer you purchase. Many men and women use the operating system which comes with their computer, however it is possible to update or perhaps alter operating systems. The three most frequent operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux. A GUI enables you to use your mouse to click on icons, switches , and menus, and that which is clearly displayed on the display by means of a combo of images and text. Each operating system's GUI includes a different feel and look, so if you Switch to another operating system it might appear unfamiliar at first. However, modern operating systems have been made to be effortless to utilize , and the majority of the fundamental principles are exactly the same.

Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
Microsoft Windows
Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
macOS
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
Linux
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.
Operating systems for mobile devices
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.

David Tomaschik: Hacker Holiday Gift Guide - 2020 Edition

Welcome to the 2020 edition of my Hacker Holiday Gift Guide! This has been a trying year for all of us, but I sincerely hope you and your family are happy and healthy as this year comes to an end.

Table of Contents

  • General Security
    • ProtonMail Subscription
    • Encrypted Flash Drive
    • Cryptographic Security Key
    • Linux Basics for Hackers
  • Penetration Testers & Red Teamers
    • The Pentester Blueprint
    • Online Learning Labs
    • Penetration Testing: A Hands-On Introduction to Hacking
    • WiFi Pineapple Mark VII
    • PoC || GTFO
  • Hardware Hackers
    • Tigard
    • Hardware Hacker: Adventures in Making and Breaking Hardware
    • RTL-SDR Starter Kit
    • iFixit Pro Tech Toolkit
  • Young Hackers
    • imagiCharm
    • Mechanical Puzzles
  • Friends and Family of Hackers
    • Hardware Security Keys
    • Control-Alt-Hack
    • VPN Subscription
  • Non-Security Tech
    • Raspberry Pi 4
    • Keysy
    • Home Automation Learning Kit
    • Boogie Board Writing Tablet
  • General Offers
    • No Starch Press
    • Hooligan Keys

General Security

ProtonMail Subscription

ProtonMail is a great encrypted mail provider for those with an interest...


Welcome to the 2020 edition of my Hacker Holiday Gift Guide! This has been a trying year for all of us, but I sincerely hope you and your family are happy and healthy as this year comes to an end.

Table of Contents

  • General Security
    • ProtonMail Subscription
    • Encrypted Flash Drive
    • Cryptographic Security Key
    • Linux Basics for Hackers
  • Penetration Testers & Red Teamers
    • The Pentester Blueprint
    • Online Learning Labs
    • Penetration Testing: A Hands-On Introduction to Hacking
    • WiFi Pineapple Mark VII
    • PoC || GTFO
  • Hardware Hackers
    • Tigard
    • Hardware Hacker: Adventures in Making and Breaking Hardware
    • RTL-SDR Starter Kit
    • iFixit Pro Tech Toolkit
  • Young Hackers
    • imagiCharm
    • Mechanical Puzzles
  • Friends and Family of Hackers
    • Hardware Security Keys
    • Control-Alt-Hack
    • VPN Subscription
  • Non-Security Tech
    • Raspberry Pi 4
    • Keysy
    • Home Automation Learning Kit
    • Boogie Board Writing Tablet
  • General Offers
    • No Starch Press
    • Hooligan Keys

General Security

ProtonMail Subscription

ProtonMail is a great encrypted mail provider for those with an interest in privacy or cryptography. They offer gift cards for subscriptions to both ProtonMail and ProtonVPN, their VPN service.

Encrypted Flash Drive

Datashur Pro

I know cloud storage is all the rage, but sometimes you need a local copy. Sometimes, you even need that local copy to be protected – maybe it’s user data, maybe it’s financial data, maybe it’s medical data – and hardware encryption allows you to go from one system to another without needing any special software. Additionally, it can’t be keylogged or easily compromised from software. This Datashur Pro is my choice of encrypted flash drive, but there are a number of options out there.

Cryptographic Security Key

Yubikey 5C

These devices act as a second factor for authentication, but some of them can do so much more. The Yubikey 5 can also function as a hardware security token for encryption keys and provide one-time-password functionality. Keys from Feitian Technologies support Bluetooth Low Energy in addition to NFC and USB, allowing them to work with a variety of devices. If you or your hacker are into open source, the SoloKey keys are open source hardware implementations of the specification.

Linux Basics for Hackers

Linux Basics For Hackers

I’ve been using Linux for more than two decades, so I honestly initially just bought Linux Basics for Hackers because of the awesome hacker penguin on the cover. If you’re not already familiar with Linux, but need it to grow your skillset, this is an excellent book with a focus on the Linux you need to know as an information security professional or hacker. It has a particular focus on Kali Linux, the Linux distribution popular for penetration testing, but the lessons are more broadly applicable across different security domains.


Penetration Testers & Red Teamers

These gifts are for your pentesters, red teamers, and those learning the field.

The Pentester Blueprint

The Pentester Blueprint

The Pentester Blueprint is a guide to getting started as a professional penetration tester. It’s not very technical, and it’s not going to teach your recipient how to “hack”, but it’s great career advice for those getting started in penetration testing or looking to make a career transition. It basically just came out, so it’s up-to-date (which is, of course, a perpetual issue in technical books these days. It’s written in a very easy-reading style, so is great for those considering the switch to pentesting.

Online Learning Labs

I can recommend several online labs, some of which offer gift cards:

  • PentesterLab
  • Hack the Box
  • TryHackMe

Penetration Testing: A Hands-On Introduction to Hacking

Penetration Testing

Georgia Weidman’s book, “Penetration Testing: A Hands-On Introduction to Hacking” is one of the best introductory guides to penetration testing that I have seen. Even though it’s been a few years since it was released, it remains high-quality content and a great introductory guide to the space. Available via Amazon or No Starch Press. Georgia is a great speaker and teacher and well-known for her efforts to spread knowledge within the security community.

WiFi Pineapple Mark VII

WiFi Pineapple

The WiFi Pineapple is probably the best known piece of “hacking hardware”. Now in it’s seventh generation, it’s used for conducting WiFi security audits, on-site penetration tests, or even as a remote implant for remote penetration tests. I’ve owned several versions of the WiFi Pineapple and found that it only gets better with each generation. Especially with dual radios, it can do things like act as a client on one radio while providing an access point on the other radio.

The WiFi Pineapple does have a bit of a learning curve, but it’s a great option for those getting into the field or learning about the various types of WiFi audits and attacks. The USB ports also allow expansion if you need to add a capability not already built-in.

PoC || GTFO

PoC||GTFO

PoC||GTFO is an online journal for offensive security and exploitation. No Starch Press has published a pair of physical journals in a beautiful biblical style. The content is very high quality, but they’re also presented in a striking style that would go well on the bookshelf of even the most discerning hacker. Check out both Volume I and Volume II, with Volume III available for pre-order to be delivered in January.


Hardware Hackers

Tigard

Tigard

Tigard is a pretty cool little hardware hacker’s universal interface that I’m super excited about. Similar to my open source project, TIMEP, it’s a universal interface for SPI, I2C, JTAG, SWD, UART, and more. It’s great for examining embedded devices and IoT, and is a really well-thought-out implementation of such a board. It supports a variety of voltages and options and is even really well documented on the back of the board so you never have to figure out how to hook it up. This is great both for those new to hardware hacking as well as those experienced looking for an addition to the toolkit.

Hardware Hacker: Adventures in Making and Breaking Hardware

Hardware Hacker

Andrew “Bunnie” Huang is a well-known hardware hacker with both experience in making and breaking hardware, and Hardware Hacker: Adventures in Making and Breaking Hardware is a great guide to his experiences in those fields. It’s not a super technical read, but it’s an excellent and interesting resource on the topics.

RTL-SDR Starter Kit

RTL-SDR

Software-Defined Radio allows you to examine wireless signals between devices. This is useful if you want to take a look at how wireless doorbells, toys, and other devices work. This Nooelec kit is a great starting SDR, as is this kit from rtl-sdr.com.

iFixit Pro Tech Toolkit

The iFixit Pro Tech Toolkit is probably the tool I use the most during security assessments of IoT/embedded devices. This kit can get into almost anything, and the driver set in it has bits for almost anything. It has torx, security torx, hex, Phillips and slotted bits, in addition to many more esoteric bits. The kit also contains other opening tools for prying and pulling apart snap-together enclosures and devices. I will admit, I don’t think I’ve ever used the anti-static wrist strap, even if it would make sense to do so.


Young Hackers

imagiCharm

imagiCharm

imagiCharm by imagiLabs is a small hardware device that allows young programmers to get their first bite into programming embedded devices – or even programming in general. While I haven’t tried it myself, it looks like a great concept, and providing something hands-on looks like a clear win for encouraging students and helping them find their interest.

Mechanical Puzzles

PuzzleMaster offers a bunch of really cool mechanical puzzles and games. These include things like puzzle locks, twisty puzzles, and more. When we’re all stuck inside, why not give something hands on a try?


Friends and Family of Hackers

Bring a touch of hacking to your friends and family!

Hardware Security Keys

Yubico Security Key

A Security Key is a physical 2 factor security token that makes web logins much more secure. Users touch the gold disc when signing in to verify their signin request, so even if a password gets stolen, the account won’t be stolen. These tokens are supported by sites like Google, GitHub, Vanguard, Dropbox, GitLab, Facebook, and more.

Unlike text-message based second factor, these tokens are impossible to phish, can’t be stolen via phone number porting attacks, and don’t depend on your phone having a charge.

Control-Alt-Hack

Control-Alt-Hack

Control-Alt-Hack is a hacking-themed card game. Don’t expect technical accuracy, but it’s a lot of fun to play. Featuring terms like “Entropy” and “Mission”, it brings the theme of hacking to the whole family. It’s an interesting take on things, and a really cool concept. If you’re a fan of independent board/card games and a fan of hacking, this would be a fun addition to your collection.

VPN Subscription

If your friends or family use open wireless networks (I know, maybe not as much this year), they should consider using a VPN. I currently use Private Internet Access when I need a commercial provider, but I have also used Ivacy before, as well as ProtonVPN.


Non-Security Tech

These are tech items that are not specific to the security industry/area. Great for hackers, friends of hackers, and more.

Raspberry Pi 4

Raspberry Pi 4

Okay, I probably could’ve put the Raspberry Pi 4 in almost any of these categories because it’s such a versatile tool. It can be a young hacker’s first Linux computer, it can be a penetration testing dropbox, it can be a great tool for hardware hackers, and it can be a project unto itself. The user can use it to run a home media server, a network-level ad blocker, or just get familiar with another operating system. While I’ve been a fan of the Raspberry Pi in various forms for years, the Pi 4 has a quad core processor and can come with enough memory for some powerful uses. There’s a bunch of configurations, like:

  • A Complete Starter Kit
  • The Bare Board
  • Learning Kit with Sensors, Buttons, Screen, etc.
  • Pi Zero Starter Kit

Keysy

Keysy

The Keysy is a a small RFID duplicator. While it can be used for physical penetration testing, it’s also just super convenient if you have multiple RFID keyfobs you need to deal with (i.e., apartment, work, garage, etc.). Note that it only handles certain types of RFID cards, but most of the common standards are available and workable.

Home Automation Learning Kit

This is a really cool kit for learning about home automation with Arduino. It has sensors and inputs for learning about how home automation systems work – controlling things with relays, measuring light, temperature, etc. I love the implementation into a fake laser cut house for the purpose of learning – it’s really clever, and makes me think it would be great for anyone into tech and automation. Teens and adults wanting to learn about Arduino, security practitioners who want to examine how things could go wrong (could augment this with consumer-grade products) and more.

Boogie Board Writing Tablet

Sometimes you just want to hand write something. While I’m also a fan of Field Notes Notebooks in my pocket, this Boogie Board tablet strikes me as a pretty cool option. It allows the user to write on its surface overlaid over anything of your choice (it’s transparent) and then capture the written content into iOS or Android. I love to hand write for brainstorming, some form of note taking, and more. System diagrams are so much easier in writing than in digital format, even today.


General Offers

This is my attempt to collect special offers for the holiday season that are relevant to the hacking community. These are all subject to change, but I believe them correct at the time of writing.

No Starch Press

No Starch Press is possibly the highest quality tech book publisher. Rather than focusing on quantity of books published, they only accept books that will be high quality. I own at least a couple of dozen of their books and they have been consistently well-written and high quality coverage of the topics. They are currently offering 33.7% off their entire catalog for Black Friday (through 11/29/20).

Hooligan Keys

Hooligan Keys offering 10% off from Thanksgiving to Christmas with offer code HAPPYDAY2020.


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