What is an operating system?

An operating system (OS) is the Application Which, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, oversees all the other application programs in a computer. The application programs make use of the working system by making Furthermore, users can interact directly with the operating system Via a user interface like a command line or a graphical user interface (GUI).

9 Popular Mobile Operating Systems

Android OS (Google Inc.) ...
2. Bada (Samsung Electronics) ...
BlackBerry OS (Research In Motion) ...
iPhone OS / iOS (Apple) ...
MeeGo OS (Nokia and Intel) ...
Palm OS (Garnet OS) ...
Symbian OS (Nokia) ...
webOS (Palm/HP) ...

Types of operating systems.

Operating systems normally include pre-loaded on almost any Computer you purchase. Many men and women use the operating system which comes with their computer, however it is possible to update or perhaps alter operating systems. The three most frequent operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux. A GUI enables you to use your mouse to click on icons, switches , and menus, and that which is clearly displayed on the display by means of a combo of images and text. Each operating system's GUI includes a different feel and look, so if you Switch to another operating system it might appear unfamiliar at first. However, modern operating systems have been made to be effortless to utilize , and the majority of the fundamental principles are exactly the same.

Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
Microsoft Windows
Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
macOS
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
Linux
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.
Operating systems for mobile devices
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.

Stuart Langridge: Remediating sites

Sometimes you’ll find yourself doing a job where you need to make alterations to a web page that already exists, and where you can’t change the HTML, so your job is to write some bits of JavaScript to poke at the page, add some attributes and some event handlers, maybe move some things around. This sort of thing comes up a lot with accessibility remediations, but maybe you’re working with an ancient CMS where changing the templates is a no-no, or you’re plugging in some after-the-fact support into a site that can’t be changed without a big approval process but adding a script element is allowed. So you write a script, no worries. How do you test it?

Well, one way is to actually do it: we assume that the way your work will eventually be deployed is that you’ll give the owners a script file, they’ll upload it somehow to the site and add a script element that loads it. That’s likely to be a very slow and cumbersome process, though (if it wasn’t, then you wouldn’t need to be fixing the site by poking it with JS, would you? you’d just fix the HTML as God intended web developers to do) and so there ought to be a better way. A potential better way is to have them add a script element...


Sometimes you’ll find yourself doing a job where you need to make alterations to a web page that already exists, and where you can’t change the HTML, so your job is to write some bits of JavaScript to poke at the page, add some attributes and some event handlers, maybe move some things around. This sort of thing comes up a lot with accessibility remediations, but maybe you’re working with an ancient CMS where changing the templates is a no-no, or you’re plugging in some after-the-fact support into a site that can’t be changed without a big approval process but adding a script element is allowed. So you write a script, no worries. How do you test it?

Well, one way is to actually do it: we assume that the way your work will eventually be deployed is that you’ll give the owners a script file, they’ll upload it somehow to the site and add a script element that loads it. That’s likely to be a very slow and cumbersome process, though (if it wasn’t, then you wouldn’t need to be fixing the site by poking it with JS, would you? you’d just fix the HTML as God intended web developers to do) and so there ought to be a better way. A potential better way is to have them add a script element that points at your script on some other server, so you can iterate on that and then eventually send over the finished version when done. But that’s still pretty annoying, and it means putting that on the live server (“a ‘staging’ server? no, I don’t think we’ve got one of those”) and then having something in your script which only runs it if it’s you testing. Alternatively, you might download the HTML for the page with Save Page As and grab all the dependencies. But that never works quite right, does it?

The way I do this is with Greasemonkey. Greasemonkey, or its Chrome-ish cousin Tampermonkey, has been around forever, and it lets you write custom scripts which it then takes care of loading for you when you visit a specified URL. Great stuff: write your thing as a Greasemonkey script to test it and then when you’re happy, send the script file to the client and you’re done.

There is a little nuance here, though. A Greasemonkey script isn’t exactly the same as a script in the page. This is partially because of browser security restrictions, and partially because GM scripts have certain magic privileged access that scripts in the page don’t have. What this means is that the Greasemonkey script environment is quite sandboxed away; it doesn’t have direct access to stuff in the page, and stuff in the page doesn’t have direct access to it (in the early days, there were security problems where in-page script walked its way back up the object tree until it got hold of one of the magic Greasemonkey objects and then used that to do all sorts of naughty privileged things that it shouldn’t have been able to, and so it all got rigorously sandboxed away to prevent that). So, if the page loads jQuery, say, and you want to use that, then you can’t, because your script is in its own little world with a peephole to the page, and getting hold of in-page objects is awkward. Obviously, your remediation script can’t be relying on any of these magic GM privileges (because it won’t have them when it’s deployed for real), so you don’t intend to use them, but because GM doesn’t know that, it still isolates your script away. Fortunately, there’s a neat little trick to have the best of both worlds; to create the script in GM to make it easy to test and iterate, but have the script run in the context of the page so it gets the environment it expects.

What you do is, put all your code in a function, stringify it, and then push that string into an in-page script. Like this:

// ==UserScript==
// @name     Stuart's GM remediation script
// @version  1
// @grant    none
// ==/UserScript==

function main() {
    /* All your code goes below here... */



    /* ...and above here. */
}

let script = document.createElement("script");
script.textContent = "(" + main.toString() + ")();";
document.body.appendChild(script);

That’s it. Your code is defined in Greasemonkey, but it’s actually executed as though it were a script element in the page. You should basically pretend that that code doesn’t exist and just write whatever you planned to inside the main() function. You can define other functions, add event handlers, whatever you fancy. This is a neat trick; I’m not sure if I invented it or picked it up from somewhere else years ago (and if someone knows, tell me and I’ll happily link to whoever invented it), but it’s really useful; you build the remediation script, doing whatever you want it to do, and then when you’re happy with it, copy whatever’s inside the main() function to a new file called whatever.js and send that to the client, and tell them: upload this to your creaky old CMS and then link to it with a script element. Job done. Easier for you, easier for them!


Read full article on Planet Ubuntu


The Linux Foundation

Linuxtechi

Linux Tutorials & Guide

Linux Today