What is an operating system?

An operating system (OS) is the Application Which, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, oversees all the other application programs in a computer. The application programs make use of the working system by making Furthermore, users can interact directly with the operating system Via a user interface like a command line or a graphical user interface (GUI).

9 Popular Mobile Operating Systems

Android OS (Google Inc.) ...
2. Bada (Samsung Electronics) ...
BlackBerry OS (Research In Motion) ...
iPhone OS / iOS (Apple) ...
MeeGo OS (Nokia and Intel) ...
Palm OS (Garnet OS) ...
Symbian OS (Nokia) ...
webOS (Palm/HP) ...

Types of operating systems.

Operating systems normally include pre-loaded on almost any Computer you purchase. Many men and women use the operating system which comes with their computer, however it is possible to update or perhaps alter operating systems. The three most frequent operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux. A GUI enables you to use your mouse to click on icons, switches , and menus, and that which is clearly displayed on the display by means of a combo of images and text. Each operating system's GUI includes a different feel and look, so if you Switch to another operating system it might appear unfamiliar at first. However, modern operating systems have been made to be effortless to utilize , and the majority of the fundamental principles are exactly the same.

Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
Microsoft Windows
Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
macOS
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
Linux
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.
Operating systems for mobile devices
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.

David Tomaschik: Hacker Culture Reading List

A friend recently asked me if I could recommend some reading about hacking and security culture. I gave a couple of quick answers, but it inspired me to write a blog post in case anyone else is looking for similar content. Unless otherwise noted, I’ve read all of these books/resources and can recommend them.

Nonfiction

Cult of the Dead Cow: How the Original Hacking Supergroup Might Just Save the World

Cult of the Dead Cow: How the Original Hacking Supergroup Might Just Save the World is a well-researched deep dive into one of the original and most significant hacking groups. Members of the cDc have been involved in many of the early fundamental techniques and tools in the world of hacking. Even now, decades later, they continue to influence the fields of hacking and cybersecurity, through activities like member Beto O’Rourke’s influences in politics, major roles in the cybersecurity industry, and other positions. They’ve had members testify before Congress, involved in running DARPA, and the development of privacy technology Tor. There’s also a great companion talk to go with the book.

Breaking and Entering: The Extraordinary Story of a Hacker Called "Alien"

Breaking and Entering: The Extraordinary Story of a Hacker Called “Alien” covers a story of a hacker who started her foray into exploring the restricted during...


A friend recently asked me if I could recommend some reading about hacking and security culture. I gave a couple of quick answers, but it inspired me to write a blog post in case anyone else is looking for similar content. Unless otherwise noted, I’ve read all of these books/resources and can recommend them.

Nonfiction

Cult of the Dead Cow: How the Original Hacking Supergroup Might Just Save the World

Cult of the Dead Cow: How the Original Hacking Supergroup Might Just Save the World is a well-researched deep dive into one of the original and most significant hacking groups. Members of the cDc have been involved in many of the early fundamental techniques and tools in the world of hacking. Even now, decades later, they continue to influence the fields of hacking and cybersecurity, through activities like member Beto O’Rourke’s influences in politics, major roles in the cybersecurity industry, and other positions. They’ve had members testify before Congress, involved in running DARPA, and the development of privacy technology Tor. There’s also a great companion talk to go with the book.

Breaking and Entering: The Extraordinary Story of a Hacker Called "Alien"

Breaking and Entering: The Extraordinary Story of a Hacker Called “Alien” covers a story of a hacker who started her foray into exploring the restricted during her time at MIT. The hacking done there was more akin to what we might call urban exploration today, but was called hacking at the time. The inquisitiveness of wanting to explore what was “verboten” is what has lead to generations of great hacks we’ve seen since. Alien takes her interest in the forbidden and brings it to the digital age through her computer exploits and develops into one of the most talented hacking careers. Her skills aren’t limited to the keyboard, however, and she takes things into her own hands and starts her own business.

Ghost in the Wires: My Adventures as the World's Most Wanted Hacker

Love him or hate him, Kevin Mitnick is both one of the best known hackers of all time as well as a significant influence in the hacking and phone phreaking scenes of the 1990s. Ghost in the Wires: My Adventures as the World’s Most Wanted Hacker documents the times he was on the run from federal authorities while labeled as the “world’s most dangerous hacker.” While the book is not very technical at all, it describes some great social engineering exploits and is an enjoyable read to get to understand the actions involved in escaping the Feds. Even though they’re older books, I also enjoy Mitnick’s The Art of Deception: Controlling the Human Element of Security and The Art of Intrusion: The Real Stories Behind the Exploits of Hackers, Intruders and Deceivers.

The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy Through the Maze of Computer Espionage

The Cuckoo’s Egg goes back to an era of timesharing on mainframe computer systems. Astronomer turned systems administrator turned author Cliff Stoll details how an accounting error turned into a hunt for a hacker that has compromised their timesharing system at Lawrence Berkeley Labs. It’s not just some bored student or phreaker messing with their system – it turns into a major intelligence and criminal investigation, leading to a major bust. Oh, and that accounting error? It was over 75 cents. This may well be one of the earliest hacking investigations to be documented and publicized in this way. It’s a hybrid of detective story and hacking story, and is just the right length to tell the story.

Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government -- Saving Privacy in the Digital Age

Steven Levy’s Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government – Saving Privacy in the Digital Age describes the first Crypto Wars, in the mid 1990s. It discusses the issues and implications of access to cryptography, why the government wants to control access to cryptography (to control information) and how the issues played out. This may be one of the most timely books in this list given the issues at play with the US legislature, the laws recently passed in Australia, and other issues at hand. Paraphrasing George Santayana, “Those who do not remember their past are condemned to repeat their mistakes.”

Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution

Also by Steven Levy, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution is a great profile of the original hackers, even before the times of cybersecurity. The book covers the early “hackers” of computers like Bill Gates, Steve Wozniak, and Richard Stallman and the transition from the mainframe computing world to the world of computers in every home. Today we’ve transitioned to computers in every pocket, but the evolution was begun by these early computer enthusiasts. Without their efforts (and their sometimes bending the rules), we wouldn’t have the hacking scene we do today. Steven Levy covers the history in depth and with a great amount of detail.

Fiction (Culturally Influencing)

Neuromancer

William Gibson, author of Neuromancer, the first book in the Sprawl trilogy, is the father of the term “cyberspace”, giving us “cybersecurity”. I’m not sure whether to thank him or hate him for the term “cybersecurity”, but I do know that this book is one of the defining books of the “cyber” culture, including modern hackers, cyberpunks, and a large part of the culture surrounding the realm of hacking. It’s likely that this book (and series) has influenced an entire generation of science fiction writers and the surrounding culture. The book is a literary masterpiece in its own right, winning both a Philip K. Dick Award and a Hugo Award. The other two books in the Sprawl trilogy are Count Zero and Mona Lisa Overdrive. This is, without a doubt, my favorite book trilogy and one of my favorite books of all time.

Snow Crash

Snow Crash by Neal Stephenson is set in the Metaverse and heavily features virtual reality being used as a substitute for, well, reality. In many ways, it’s a 21st century take on Neuromancer but also brings into play a blend of old and new culture and truly makes you think about where society is headed. This book managed to make Time’s list of 100 best English-language novels and is also one of my top 10 books. Neal Stephenson is an imaginative author with an eye for the future that makes you think. His book Cryptonomicon is another of my favorites.

Digital Fortress

Digital Fortress by Dan Brown (author of The Da Vinci Code) is an all-too-real fictional account of a secret NSA supercomputer capable of breaking any encryption system. With malware introduced into the computer, the system is beginning to break down and they must uncover the story of what has happened and how. With the author of the code infecting the machine dead, the members of the NSA cryptography team must work to figure out what’s behind the malware and the code it contained. This novel is deeply engrossing – the first time I read it, I ended up missing a whole night of sleep reading it. (I can’t recommend this approach, especially if you have to go to work the next day.)

Little Brother

Little Brother by Cory Doctorow is a modern day take on Orwell’s 1984, updated for the technologies and organizations of today. Quite frankly, it’s so realistic to me that it’s deeply unsettling – in the uncanny valley of government surveillance. It’s a reminder that we have to be careful of the way we treat our privacy, our rights, and the power of our government. Doctorow has a scary outlook on life, but it’s an important read for anyone concerned about the state of our society. Though written as a “young adult” novel, I found it an engaging and interesting read and thought provoking. In fact, I’ve read it at least twice, along with Homeland. If you’re more the novella type, I can strongly recommend Overclocked, though the story sysadmins is a bit of a horror story. (Though maybe you like that sort of thing!)

Guilty Pleasures

Though I can’t recommend them as “high quality literature”, there are a few books I enjoy reading in the vein of hacking. These include:

  • Geek Mafia by Rick Dakan
  • Geek Mafia: Mile Zero by Rick Dakan
  • Zero Day: A Jeff Aiken Novel by Mark Russinovich

Read full article on Planet Ubuntu


The Linux Foundation

Linuxtechi

Linux Tutorials & Guide

Linux Today