What is an operating system?

An operating system (OS) is the Application Which, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, oversees all the other application programs in a computer. The application programs make use of the working system by making Furthermore, users can interact directly with the operating system Via a user interface like a command line or a graphical user interface (GUI).

9 Popular Mobile Operating Systems

Android OS (Google Inc.) ...
2. Bada (Samsung Electronics) ...
BlackBerry OS (Research In Motion) ...
iPhone OS / iOS (Apple) ...
MeeGo OS (Nokia and Intel) ...
Palm OS (Garnet OS) ...
Symbian OS (Nokia) ...
webOS (Palm/HP) ...

Types of operating systems.

Operating systems normally include pre-loaded on almost any Computer you purchase. Many men and women use the operating system which comes with their computer, however it is possible to update or perhaps alter operating systems. The three most frequent operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux. A GUI enables you to use your mouse to click on icons, switches , and menus, and that which is clearly displayed on the display by means of a combo of images and text. Each operating system's GUI includes a different feel and look, so if you Switch to another operating system it might appear unfamiliar at first. However, modern operating systems have been made to be effortless to utilize , and the majority of the fundamental principles are exactly the same.

Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
Microsoft Windows
Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
macOS
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
Linux
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.
Operating systems for mobile devices
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.

David Tomaschik: Stop EARN IT and LAED

Unless you’ve been living under a rock, you know that the Crypto Wars are back. Politicians, seemingly led by Senator Lindsey Graham of South Carolina, seem bound and determined to undermine user’s privacy and security online to strengthen the power of the police state. It will have disproportionate affects on the innocent rather than criminals and will raise operating costs and make it much harder for small businesses and startups to compete in the US.

  1. Much like guns and nuclear weapons, the cryptography genie is already out of the bottle. Inserting backdoors or limiting access to encryption will affect law-abiding citizens, but criminals will be able to continue to use encryption software that already exists. In fact, the Al Qaeda terrorist organization already develops their own encryption software. It’s not like they’ll comply with US laws. While we might succeed in reducing their access to some types of encryption (e.g., encrypted phones), we won’t be able to completely eliminate it for motivated criminal enterprises or terror cells.
  2. There are a lot of legitimate reasons to want to use end-to-end encryption or full device encryption. Do companies want their...

Unless you’ve been living under a rock, you know that the Crypto Wars are back. Politicians, seemingly led by Senator Lindsey Graham of South Carolina, seem bound and determined to undermine user’s privacy and security online to strengthen the power of the police state. It will have disproportionate affects on the innocent rather than criminals and will raise operating costs and make it much harder for small businesses and startups to compete in the US.

  1. Much like guns and nuclear weapons, the cryptography genie is already out of the bottle. Inserting backdoors or limiting access to encryption will affect law-abiding citizens, but criminals will be able to continue to use encryption software that already exists. In fact, the Al Qaeda terrorist organization already develops their own encryption software. It’s not like they’ll comply with US laws. While we might succeed in reducing their access to some types of encryption (e.g., encrypted phones), we won’t be able to completely eliminate it for motivated criminal enterprises or terror cells.
  2. There are a lot of legitimate reasons to want to use end-to-end encryption or full device encryption. Do companies want their sensitive data accessible to competitors? Do individuals want their data available to someone who finds their phone in a cab or steals it? Journalists want to be able to communicate with their sources in confidence, and attorneys and doctors should be able to securely encrypt their privileged files. The United States Senate even encourages Senators to use end-to-end encryption, as does the 82nd Airborne Division of the US Army.
  3. There is no such thing as good guy only access. Being good or evil is a matter of perspective and ethics, and technology does not recognize those. Any backdoor, key escrow, or other system designed to comply with these laws is subject to abuse by malicious governments, malicious insiders, or criminals. Cryptographer and professor Matthew Green says so, Bruce Schneier says so, and I say so. We’ve seen providers with stored keys breached before, so it would be pretty surprising if it didn’t happen again. The only way to keep the keys from being compromised is for the provider to not have them at all.
  4. It will decrease trust in American service providers. Look at the way Huawei and ZTE are treated because of potential Chinese backdoors. Why would another country want the US government to have a backdoor into communications they use? Even if you believe intent is good (and stopping child abuse is), the way the US government has used spying capabilities in the past raises serious concerns.

There’s good analysis on both EARN IT and LAED, the two bills introduced by Senator Graham here:

  • Stanford Law on EARN IT
  • Stanford Law on LAED
  • EFF on EARN IT
  • Human Rights Watch on EARN IT
  • EFF on LAED

Based on EFF language, I wrote to my Senators and Representative the following:

I write you as both a constituent and in my personal capacity as an expert in cybersecurity. For most of the past decade, I have been employed as a senior security engineer at a large technology company, I have spoken at multiple conferences on information security, and have published articles on the matter..

I strongly urge you to reject both the EARN IT Act (S.3398) and the Lawful Access to Encrypted Data Act. They both pose an existential threat to online privacy and security.

End-to-end encryption protects innocent and law-abiding users against data breaches at their service providers. As we’ve seen time and time again, persons are irreversibly harmed when their communications are leaked, and requiring backdoor access for the government opens that backdoor to abuse by foreign governments and criminals.

The Graham-Blumenthal bill would give the Attorney General far too much power to dictate how Internet companies must operate. Attorney General William Barr has made it clear that he would use that authority to undermine our right to private and secure communications by blocking encryption. Additionally, passing on this power to the Attorney General leaves too much to the whims of each administration, resulting in a great deal of uncertainty regarding the future course of things.

The bill would create a commission tasked with creating “best practices” for owners of Internet platforms to “prevent, reduce, and respond” to child exploitation online. But far from mere recommendations, those “best practices” would be approved by Congress as legal requirements. The EARN IT Act’s structure would let Barr strong-arm the commission to include requirements that tech companies weaken their own encryption systems in order to give law enforcement access to our private communications. Companies could also be required to over-censor speech to comply with the government’s demands, or to bend to future governments’ political agendas in other ways.

Regulations relating to restrictions on speech must reflect a careful balance of competing policy goals and protections for civil liberties. Congress can only strike that balance through an open, transparent lawmaking process. It would be deeply irresponsible for Congress to offload that duty to an unelected commission, and especially not a commission controlled by unelected government officials.

Please publicly oppose the EARN IT Act and the Lawful Access to Encrypted Data Act.

I encourage you to do the same.


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