What is an operating system?

An operating system (OS) is the Application Which, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, oversees all the other application programs in a computer. The application programs make use of the working system by making Furthermore, users can interact directly with the operating system Via a user interface like a command line or a graphical user interface (GUI).

9 Popular Mobile Operating Systems

Android OS (Google Inc.) ...
2. Bada (Samsung Electronics) ...
BlackBerry OS (Research In Motion) ...
iPhone OS / iOS (Apple) ...
MeeGo OS (Nokia and Intel) ...
Palm OS (Garnet OS) ...
Symbian OS (Nokia) ...
webOS (Palm/HP) ...

Types of operating systems.

Operating systems normally include pre-loaded on almost any Computer you purchase. Many men and women use the operating system which comes with their computer, however it is possible to update or perhaps alter operating systems. The three most frequent operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux. A GUI enables you to use your mouse to click on icons, switches , and menus, and that which is clearly displayed on the display by means of a combo of images and text. Each operating system's GUI includes a different feel and look, so if you Switch to another operating system it might appear unfamiliar at first. However, modern operating systems have been made to be effortless to utilize , and the majority of the fundamental principles are exactly the same.

Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
Microsoft Windows
Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
macOS
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
Linux
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.
Operating systems for mobile devices
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.

David Tomaschik: Security 101: Encryption, Hashing, and Encoding

Encryption, Hashing, and Encoding are commonly confused topics by those new to the information security field. I see these confused even by experienced software engineers, by developers, and by new hackers. It’s really important to understand the differences – not just for semantics, but because the actual uses of them are vastly different.

I do not claim to be the first to try to clarify this distinction, but there’s still a lack of clarity, and I wanted to include some exercises for you to give a try. I’m a very hands-on person myself, so I’m hoping the hands-on examples are useful.

Encoding

Encoding is a manner of transforming some data from one representation to another in a manner that can be reversed. This encoding can be used to make data pass through interfaces that restrict byte values (e.g., character sets), or allow data to be printed, or other transformations that allow data to be consumed by another system. Some of the most commonly known encodings include hexadecimal, Base 64, and URL Encoding.

Reversing encoding results in the exact input given (i.e., is lossless), and can be done deterministically and requires no information other than the...


Encryption, Hashing, and Encoding are commonly confused topics by those new to the information security field. I see these confused even by experienced software engineers, by developers, and by new hackers. It’s really important to understand the differences – not just for semantics, but because the actual uses of them are vastly different.

I do not claim to be the first to try to clarify this distinction, but there’s still a lack of clarity, and I wanted to include some exercises for you to give a try. I’m a very hands-on person myself, so I’m hoping the hands-on examples are useful.

Encoding

Encoding is a manner of transforming some data from one representation to another in a manner that can be reversed. This encoding can be used to make data pass through interfaces that restrict byte values (e.g., character sets), or allow data to be printed, or other transformations that allow data to be consumed by another system. Some of the most commonly known encodings include hexadecimal, Base 64, and URL Encoding.

Reversing encoding results in the exact input given (i.e., is lossless), and can be done deterministically and requires no information other than the data itself. Lossless compression can be considered encoding in any format that results in an output that is smaller than the input.

While encoding may make it so that the data is not trivially recognizable by a human, it offers no security properties whatsoever. It does not protect data against unauthorized access, it does not make it difficult to be modified, and it does not hide its meaning.

Base 64 encoding is commonly used to make arbitrary binary data pass through systems only intended to accept ASCII characters. Specifically, it uses 64 characters (hence the name Base 64) to represent data, by encoding each 6 bits of raw data as a single output character. Consequently, the output is approximately 133% of the size of the input. The default character set (as defined in RFC 4648) includes the upper and lower case letters of the English alphabet, the digits 0-9, and + and /. The spec also defines a “URL safe” encoding where the extra characters are - and _.

An example of base 64 encoding, including non-printable characters, using the base64 command line tool (-d is given to decode):

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$ echo -e 'Hello\n\tWorld\n\t\t!!!' | base64
SGVsbG8KCVdvcmxkCgkJISEhCg==
$ echo 'SGVsbG8KCVdvcmxkCgkJISEhCg==' | base64 -d
Hello
        World
                !!!

Notice that the tabs and newlines become encoded (along with the other characters) in a format that uses only printable characters and could easily be included in an email, webpage, or almost any other protocol that supports text. It is for this reason that base 64 is commonly used for things like HTTP Headers (such as the Authorization header), tokens in URLs, and more.

Also note that nothing other than the encoded data is needed to decode it. There’s no key, no password, no secret involved, and it’s completely reversible. This demonstrates the lack of any security property offered by encoding.

Encryption

Encryption involves the application of a code or cipher to input plaintext to render it into “ciphertext”. Decryption is the reversal of that process, converting “ciphertext” into “plaintext”. All secure ciphers involve the use of a “key” that is required to encrypt or decrypt. Very early ciphers (such as the Caesar cipher or Vignere cipher) are not at all secure against modern techniques. (Actually they can usually be brute forced by hand even.)

Modern ciphers are designed to withstand “Kerckhoff’s principle”, which refers to the idea that a properly designed cipher assumes your opponent has the cipher algorithm (but not the key):

It should not require secrecy, and it should not be a problem if it falls into enemy hands;

Encryption is intended to provide confidentiality (and sometimes integrity) for data at rest or in transit. By encrypting data, you render it unusable to anyone who does not possess the key. (Note that if your key is weak, someone can perform a dictionary or brute force attack to retrieve your key.) It is a two way process, so it’s only suitable when you want to provide confidentiality but still be able to retrieve the plaintext.

I’ll do a future Security 101 post on the correct applications of cryptography, so I won’t currently go into anything beyond saying that if you roll your own crypto, you will do it wrong. Even cryptosystems designed by professional cryptographers undergo peer review and multiple revisions to arrive at something secure. Do not roll your own crypto.

Using the OpenSSL command line tool to encrypt data using the AES-256 cipher with the password foobarbaz:

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$ echo 'Hello world' | openssl enc -aes-256-cbc -pass pass:foobarbaz | hexdump -C
00000000  53 61 6c 74 65 64 5f 5f  08 65 ef 7e 17 31 5d 31  |Salted__.e.~.1]1|
00000010  55 3c d3 b7 8b a5 47 79  1d 72 16 ab fe 5a 0e 62  |U<....Gy.r...Z.b|
00000020

I performed a hexdump of the data because openssl would output the raw bytes, and many of those bytes are non-printable sequences that would make no sense (or corrupt my terminal). Note that if you run the exact same command twice, the output is different!

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$ echo 'Hello world' | openssl enc -aes-256-cbc -pass pass:foobarbaz | hexdump -C
00000000  53 61 6c 74 65 64 5f 5f  d4 36 43 bf de 1c 9c 1e  |Salted__.6C.....|
00000010  e4 d4 72 24 97 d8 da 95  02 f5 3e 3f 60 a4 0a aa  |..r$......>?`...|
00000020

This is because the function that converts a password to an encryption key incorporates a random salt and the encryption itself incorporates a random “initialization vector.” Consequently, you can’t compare two encrypted outputs to confirm that the underlying plaintext is the same – which also means an attacker can’t do that either!

The OpenSSL command line tool can also base 64 encode the output. Note that this is not part of the security of your output, this is just for the reasons discussed above – that the encoded output can be handled more easily through tools expecting printable output. Let’s use that to round-trip some encrypted data:

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$ echo 'Hello world' | openssl enc -aes-256-cbc -pass pass:foobarbaz -base64
U2FsdGVkX18dIL775O8wHfVz5PVObQDijxwTUHiSlK4=
$ echo 'U2FsdGVkX18dIL775O8wHfVz5PVObQDijxwTUHiSlK4=' | openssl enc -d -aes-256-cbc -pass pass:foobarbaz -base64
Hello world

What if we get the password wrong? Say, instead of foobarbaz I provide bazfoobar:

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$ echo 'U2FsdGVkX18dIL775O8wHfVz5PVObQDijxwTUHiSlK4=' | openssl enc -d -aes-256-cbc -pass pass:bazfoobar -base64
bad decrypt
140459245114624:error:06065064:digital envelope routines:EVP_DecryptFinal_ex:bad decrypt:../crypto/evp/evp_enc.c:583:

While the error may be a little cryptic, it’s clear that this is not able to decrypt with the wrong password, as we expect.

Hashing

Hashing is a one way process that converts some amount of input to a fixed output. Cryptographic hashes are those that do so in a manner that is computationally infeasible to invert (i.e., to get the input back from the output). Consequently, cryptographic hashes are sometimes referred to as “one way functions” or “trapdoor functions”. Non-cryptographic hashes can be used as basic checksums or for hash tables in memory.

Examples of cryptographic hashes include MD5 (broken), SHA-1 (broken), SHA-256/384/512, and the SHA-3 family of functions. Do not use anything based on MD5 or SHA-1 for any new applications.

There are three main security properties of a cryptographic hash:

  1. Collision resistance is the inability to find two different inputs that give the same output. If a hash is not collision resistant, you can produce two documents that would both have the same hash value (used in digital signatures). The Shattered Attack was the first Proof of Concept for a collision attack on SHA-1. Both inputs can be freely chosen by the attacker.
  2. Preimage resistance is the inability to “invert” or “reverse” the hash by finding the input to the hash function that produced that hash value. For example, if I tell you I have a SHA-256 hash of 68b1282b91de2c054c36629cb8dd447f12f096d3e3c587978dc2248444633483, it should be computationally infeasible to find the input (“The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog.”).
  3. 2nd preimage resistance is the inability to find a 2nd preimage: that is, a 2nd input that gives the same output. In contrast to the collision attack, the attacker only gets to choose one of the inputs here – the other is fixed. (Imagine someone gives you a copy of a file, and you want to modify it but have the same hash as the file they gave you.)

Hashing is commonly used in digital signatures (as a way of condensing the data being signed, since many public key crypto algorithms are limited in the amount of data they can handle. Hashes are also used for storing passwords to authenticate users.

Note that, although preimage resistance may be present in the hashing function, this is defined for an arbitrary input. When hashing input from a user, the input space may be sufficiently small that an attacker can try inputs in the same function and check if the result is the same. A brute force attack occurs when all inputs in a certain range are tried. For example, if you know that the hash is of a 9 digit national identifier number (i.e., a Social Security Number), you can try all possible 9 digit numbers in the hash to find the input that matches the hash value you have. Alternatively, a dictionary attack can be tried where the attacker tries a dictionary of common inputs to the hash function and, again, compares the outputs to the hashes they have.

You’ll often see hashes encoded in hexadecimal, though base 64 is not too uncommon, especially with longer hash values. The output of the hash function itself is merely a set of bytes, so the encoding is just for convenience. Consider the command line tools for common hashes:

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$ echo -n 'foo bar baz' | md5sum
ab07acbb1e496801937adfa772424bf7  -
$ echo -n 'foo bar baz' | sha1sum
c7567e8b39e2428e38bf9c9226ac68de4c67dc39  -
$ echo -n 'foo bar baz' | sha256sum
dbd318c1c462aee872f41109a4dfd3048871a03dedd0fe0e757ced57dad6f2d7  -

Even a tiny change in the input results in a completely different output:

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$ echo -n 'foo bar baz' | sha256sum
dbd318c1c462aee872f41109a4dfd3048871a03dedd0fe0e757ced57dad6f2d7  -
$ echo -n 'boo bar baz' | sha256sum
bd62b6e542410525d2c0d250c4f69b64e42e57e356e5260b4892afef8eacdfd3  -

Salted & Strengthened Hashing

There are special properties that are desirable when using hashes to store passwords for user authentication.

  1. It should not be possible to tell if two users have the same password.
  2. It should not be possible for an attacker to precompute a large dictionary of hashes of common passwords to lookup password hashes from a leak/breach. (Attackers would build lookup tables or more sophisticated structures called “rainbow tables”, enabling them to quickly crack hashes.)
  3. An attacker should have to attack the hashes for each user separately instead of being able to attack all at once.
  4. It should be relatively slow to perform brute force and dictionary attacks against the hashes.

“Salting” is a process used to accomplish the first three goals. A random value, called the “salt” is added to each password when it is being hashed. This way, two cases where the password is the same result in different hashes. This makes precomputing all hash/password combinations prohibitively expensive, and two users with the same password (or a user who uses the same password on two sites) results in different hashes. Obviously, it’s necessary to include the same salt value when validating the hash.

Sometimes you will see a password hash like $1$4zucQGVU$tx2SvCtH7SYaiH.4ASzNt.. The $ characters separate the hash into 3 fields. The first, 1, indicates the hash type in use. The next, 4zucQGVU is the salt for this hash, and finally, tx2SvCtH7SYaiH.4ASzNt. is the hash itself. Storing it like this allows the salt to be easily retrieved to compute a matching hash when the password is input.

The fourth property can be achieved by making the hashing function itself slow, using large amounts of memory, or by repeatedly hashing the password (or some combination thereof). This is necessary because the base hashing functions are fast for even cryptographically secure hashes. For example, the password cracking program hashcat can compute 2.8 Billion plain SHA-256 hashes per second on a consumer graphics card. On the other hand, the intentionally hard function scrypt only hahses at 435 thousand per second. This is more than 6000 times slower. Both are a tiny delay to a single user logging in, but the latter is a massive slowdown to someone hoping to crack a dump of password hashes from a database.

Common Use Cases

To store passwords for user authentication, you almost always want a memory- and cpu-hard algorithm. This makes it difficult to try large quantities of passwords, whether in brute force or a dictionary attack. The current state of the art is the Argon2 function that was the winner of the Password Hashing Competition. (Which, while styled after a NIST process, was not run by NIST but by a group of independent cryptographers.) If, for some reason, you cannot use that, you should consider scrypt, bcrypt, or at least pbkdf2 with a very high iteration count (e.g., 100000+). By now, however, almost all platforms have support for Argon2 available as an open-source library, so you should generally use it.

To protect data from being inspected, you want to encrypt it. Use a high-level crypto library like NaCl or libsodium. (I’ll be expanding on this in a future post.) You will need strong keys (ideally, randomly generated) and will need to keep those keys secret to avoid the underlying data from being exposed. One interesting application of encryption is the ability to virtually delete a collection of data by destroying the key – this is often done for offline/cold backups, for example.

To create an opaque identifier for some data you want to hash it. For example, it’s fairly common to handle uploaded files by hashing the file and storing it under a filename derived from the hash of the file contents. This provides a predictable filename format and length, and prevents two files from ending up with the same filename on the server. (Unless they have the exact same contents, but then the duplication does not matter.) This can also be used for sharding: because the values are uniformly distributed with a good hashing function, you can do things like using the first byte of the hash to identify a storage repository that is distributed.

To allow binary data to be treated like plain text, you can use encoding. You should not use encoding for any security purpose. (And yes, I feel this point deserves repeating numerous times.)

Misconceptions

There are big misconceptions that I see repeated, most often by people outside the hacking/security industry space. A lot of these seem to be over the proper use of these technologies and confusion over when to select one.

Encoding is Not Encryption

For whatever reason, I see lots of references to “base64 encryption.” (In fact, there are currently 20,000 Google results for that!) As I discussed under encoding, base64 (and other encodings) do not do encryption – they offer no confidentiality to the underlying data, and do not protect you in any way. Even though the meaning of the data may not be immediately apparent, it can still be recovered with little effort and with no key or password required. As one article puts it, Base64 encryption is a lie.

If you think you need some kind of security, some kind of encryption, something to be kept secret, do not look to encodings for this! Use proper encryption with a well-developed algorithm and mode of operation, and preferably use a library or tool that completely abstracts this away from you.

Encryption is Not Hashing

There is somewhere upwards of a half million webpages talking about password encryption. Unfortunately, the only time passwords should be encrypted is when they will need to be retrieved in plaintext, such as in a password manager. When using passwords for authentication, you should store them as a strongly salted hash to avoid attackers being able to retrieve them in the case of database access.

Encryption is a two-way process, hashing is one way. To validate that the server and the user have the same password, we merely apply the same transformation (the same hash with the same salt) to the input password and compare the outputs. We do not decrypt the stored password and compare the plaintext.

Conclusion

I hope this has been somewhat useful in dispelling some of the confusion between encryption, hashing, and encoding. Please let me know if you have feedback.


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