What is an operating system?

An operating system (OS) is the Application Which, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, oversees all the other application programs in a computer. The application programs make use of the working system by making Furthermore, users can interact directly with the operating system Via a user interface like a command line or a graphical user interface (GUI).

9 Popular Mobile Operating Systems

Android OS (Google Inc.) ...
2. Bada (Samsung Electronics) ...
BlackBerry OS (Research In Motion) ...
iPhone OS / iOS (Apple) ...
MeeGo OS (Nokia and Intel) ...
Palm OS (Garnet OS) ...
Symbian OS (Nokia) ...
webOS (Palm/HP) ...

Types of operating systems.

Operating systems normally include pre-loaded on almost any Computer you purchase. Many men and women use the operating system which comes with their computer, however it is possible to update or perhaps alter operating systems. The three most frequent operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux. A GUI enables you to use your mouse to click on icons, switches , and menus, and that which is clearly displayed on the display by means of a combo of images and text. Each operating system's GUI includes a different feel and look, so if you Switch to another operating system it might appear unfamiliar at first. However, modern operating systems have been made to be effortless to utilize , and the majority of the fundamental principles are exactly the same.

Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
Microsoft Windows
Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
macOS
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
Linux
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.
Operating systems for mobile devices
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.

David Tomaschik: Security 101: Backups & Protecting Backups

I can already hear some readers saying that backups are an IT problem, and not a security problem. The reality, of course, is that they’re both. Information security is commonly thought of in terms of the CIA Triad – that is, Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability, and it’s important to remember those concepts when dealing with backups.

We need look no farther than the troubles Garmin is having in dealing with a ransomware attack to find evidence that backups are critical. It’s unclear whether Garmin lacked adequate backups, had their backups ransomware’d, or is struggling to restore from backups. (It’s possible that they never considered an issue of this scale and simply aren’t resourced to restore this quickly, but given that the outage remains a complete outage after 4 days, I’d bet on one of those 3 conditions.)

So what does a security professional need to know about backups? Every organization is different, so I’m not going to try to provide a formula or tutorial for how to do backups, but rather discuss the security concepts in dealing with backups.

Before I got into security, I was both a Site Reliability Engineer (SRE) and a Systems Administrator, so I’ve...


I can already hear some readers saying that backups are an IT problem, and not a security problem. The reality, of course, is that they’re both. Information security is commonly thought of in terms of the CIA Triad – that is, Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability, and it’s important to remember those concepts when dealing with backups.

We need look no farther than the troubles Garmin is having in dealing with a ransomware attack to find evidence that backups are critical. It’s unclear whether Garmin lacked adequate backups, had their backups ransomware’d, or is struggling to restore from backups. (It’s possible that they never considered an issue of this scale and simply aren’t resourced to restore this quickly, but given that the outage remains a complete outage after 4 days, I’d bet on one of those 3 conditions.)

So what does a security professional need to know about backups? Every organization is different, so I’m not going to try to provide a formula or tutorial for how to do backups, but rather discuss the security concepts in dealing with backups.

Before I got into security, I was both a Site Reliability Engineer (SRE) and a Systems Administrator, so I’ve had my opportunities to think about backups from a number of different directions. I’ll try to incorporate both sides of that here.

Availability

I want to deal with availability first, because that’s really what backups are for. Backups are your last line of defense in ensuring the availability of data and services. In theory, when the service is down, you should be able to restore from backups and get going (with the possibility of some data loss in between the time of the backup and the restoration).

Availability Threat: Disaster

Anyone who’s had to deal with backups has probably given some thoughts to the various disasters that can strike their primary operations. There are numerous disasters that can take out an entire datacenter, including fire, earthquake, tornadoes, flooding, and more. Just as a general rule, assume a datacenter will disappear, so you need a full copy of your data somewhere else as well as the ability to restore operations from that location.

This also means you can’t rely on anything in that datacenter for your restoration. We’ll talk about encryption under confidentiality, but suffice it to say that you need your backup configs, metadata (what backup is stored where), encryption keys, and more in a way you can access them if you lose that site. A lot of this would be great to store completely offline, such as in a safe in your office (assuming it’s sufficiently far from the datacenter to be unaffected).

Availability Threat: Malware

While replicating your data across two sites would likely protect against natural disasters, it won’t be enough to protect against malware. Whether ransomware or malware that just wants to destroy your data, network connectivity would place both sets of data at risk if you don’t take precautions.

One option is using backup software that provides versioning controlled by the provider. For small business or SOHO use, providers like BackBlaze and SpiderOak offer this. Another choice is using a cloud provider for storage and enabling a provider-enforced policy like Retention Policies on GCP.

Alternatively, using a “pull” backup configuration (where backups are “pulled” from the system by a backup system) can help with this as well. By having the backup system pull, malware on the serving system cannot access anything but the currently online data. You still need to ensure you retain older versions to avoid just backing up the ransomware’d data.

At the end of the day, what you want is to ensure that an infected system cannot delete, modify, or replace its own backups. Remember that anything a legitimate user or service on the machine can do can also be done by malware.

Another consideration is how the backup service is administered. If, for example, your backups are stored on servers joined to your Windows domain and a domain administrator or domain controller is compromised, then the malware can also hop to the backup server and encrypt/destroy the backups. If your backups are exposed as a writable share to any compromised machine, then, again, the malware can have it’s way with your backups.

Of course, offline backups can mitigate most of the risks as well. Placing backups onto tapes or hard drives that are physically disconnected is a great way to avoid exposing those backups to malware, but it also adds significant complexity to your backup scheme.

Availability Threat: Insider

You may also want to consider a malicious insider when designing your backup strategy. While many of the steps that protect against malware will help against an insider, considering who has access to your backup strategy and what unilateral access they have is important.

Using a 3rd party service with an enforced retention period can help, as can layers of backups administered by different individuals. Offline backups also make it harder for an individual to quickly destroy data.

Ensuring that the backup administrator is also not in a good position to destroy your live data can also help protect against their ability to have too much impact on your organization.

Confidentiality

It’s critical to protect your data. Since many backup approaches involve entrusting your data to a 3rd party (whether it’s a cloud provider, an archival storage company, or a colocated data center), encryption is commonly employed to ensure confidentiality of the data stored. (Naturally, the key should not be stored with the 3rd party.)

Fun anecdote: at a previous employer, we had our backup tapes stored offsite by a 3rd party backup provider. The tapes were picked up and delivered in a locked box, and we were told that only we possessed the key to the box. I became “suspicious” when we added a new person to our authorized list (those who are allowed to request backups back from the vendor) and the person’s ID card was delivered inside our locked box. (Needless to say, you can’t trust statements like that from a vendor – not to mention that a plastic box is not a security boundary.)

All the data you backup should be encrypted with a key your organization controls, and you should have access to that key even if your network is completely trashed. I recommend storing it in a safe, preferrably on a smartcard or other secure element. (Ideally in a couple of locations to hedge your bets.)

A fun bit about encrypted backups: if you use proper encryption, destroying the key is equivalent to destroying all the backups encrypted with that key. Some organizations do this as a way of expiring old data. You can have the data spread across all kinds of tapes, but once the key is destroyed, you will never be recovering that data. (On the other hand, if a malicious actor destroys your key, you will also never be recovering that data.)

Integrity

Your backups need to be integrity protected – that is, protected against tampering or modification. This both protects against accidental modifications (i.e., corruption from bad media, physical damage, etc.) as well as tampering. While encryption makes it harder for an adversary to modify data in a controlled fashion, it is still possible. (This is a property of encryption known as Malleability.)

Ideally, backups should be cryptographyically signed. This prevents both accidental and malicious modification to the underlying data. A common approach is to build a manifest of cryptographic hashes (i.e., SHA-256) of each file and then sign that. The individual hashes can be computed in parallel and even on multiple hosts, then the finished manifest can be signed. (Possibly on a different host.)

These hashes can also be used to verify the backups as written to ensure against damage during the writing of backups. Only the signing machines need access to the private key (which should ideally be stored in a hardware-backed key storage mechanism like a smart card or TPM).

Backup Strategy Testing

No matter what strategy you end up designing (which should be a joint function between the core IT group and the security team), the strategy needs to be evaluated and tested. Restoration needs to be tested, and threats need to be considered.

Practicing Restoration

This is likely to be far more a function of IT/production teams than of the security team, but you have to test restoration. I’ve seen too many backup plans without a tested restoration plan that wouldn’t work in practice.

Fails I’ve seen or heard of:

  • Relying on encryption to protect the backup, but then not having a copy of the encryption key at the time of restoration.
  • Using tapes for backups, but not having metadata of what was backed up on what tape. (Tapes are slow, imagine searching for the data you need.)

Tabletop Scenarios

When designing a backup strategy, I suggest doing a series of tabletop exercises to evaluate risks. Having a subset of the team play “red team” and attempt to destroy the data or access confidential data or apply ransomware to the network and the rest of the team evaluating controls to prevent this is a great way to discover gaps in your thought process.

Likewise, explicitly threat modeling ransomware into your backup strategy is critical, as we’ve seen increased use of this tactic by cybercriminals. Even though defenses to prevent ransomware getting on your network in the first place would be ideal, real security involves defense in depth, and having workable backups is a key mitigation for the risks posed by ransomware.


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