What is an operating system?

An operating system (OS) is the Application Which, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, oversees all the other application programs in a computer. The application programs make use of the working system by making Furthermore, users can interact directly with the operating system Via a user interface like a command line or a graphical user interface (GUI).

9 Popular Mobile Operating Systems

Android OS (Google Inc.) ...
2. Bada (Samsung Electronics) ...
BlackBerry OS (Research In Motion) ...
iPhone OS / iOS (Apple) ...
MeeGo OS (Nokia and Intel) ...
Palm OS (Garnet OS) ...
Symbian OS (Nokia) ...
webOS (Palm/HP) ...

Types of operating systems.

Operating systems normally include pre-loaded on almost any Computer you purchase. Many men and women use the operating system which comes with their computer, however it is possible to update or perhaps alter operating systems. The three most frequent operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux. A GUI enables you to use your mouse to click on icons, switches , and menus, and that which is clearly displayed on the display by means of a combo of images and text. Each operating system's GUI includes a different feel and look, so if you Switch to another operating system it might appear unfamiliar at first. However, modern operating systems have been made to be effortless to utilize , and the majority of the fundamental principles are exactly the same.

Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
Microsoft Windows
Microsoft established the Windows operating platform at the mid-1980s. There have been a number of distinct variants of Windows, but the latest ones are Windows 10 (published in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), along with Windows Vista (2007). Windows includes pre-loaded on many new PCs, which helps to ensure it is the hottest operating system on the planet.
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
macOS
MacOS (formerly called OS X) is a Lineup of operating systems made by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. A number of the specific models include Mojave (published in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016). Based on StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users accounts for significantly less than 10 percent of international functioning systems--considerably lower than the percent of Windows users (greater than 80 percent ). 1 reason behind this is that Apple computers have a tendency to be costlier. But a lot of individuals do prefer the appearance and feel of macOS over Windows.
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
Linux
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a household of open-source operating systems, so they may be altered and distributed by all around the globe. This differs from proprietary program such as Windows, which may only be altered by the organization that owns it. The benefits of Linux are that it's free, and there are several different distributions or variations you may select from. Based on StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users accounts for under 2 percent of international functioning systems. But most servers run Linux since it's relatively simple to personalize.
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.
Operating systems for mobile devices
The operating systems we have been speaking about so much were created to operate on desktop and notebook computers. Mobile apparatus like telephones , tablets , and MP3 players Are distinct from desktop and notebook computers, so that they run operating systems that have been designed especially for mobile devices. From the screenshot below, you can view iOS running in an iPad. Operating systems for mobile devices normally are not as fully featured As those created for desktop and notebook computers, and they are not capable to Run each the exact same software. But, you can still perform a Great Deal of things Together, like watch videos, browse the net, manage your calendarand play games.

Sebastian Dröge: Automatic retry on error and fallback stream handling for GStreamer sources

A very common problem in GStreamer, especially when working with live network streams, is that the source might just fail at some point. Your own network might have problems, the source of the stream might have problems, …

Without any special handling of such situations, the default behaviour in GStreamer is to simply report an error and let the application worry about handling it. The application might for example want to restart the stream, or it might simply want to show an error to the user, or it might want to show a fallback stream instead, telling the user that the stream is currently not available and then seamlessly switch back to the stream once it comes back.

Implementing all of the aforementioned is quite some effort, especially to do it in a robust way. To make it easier for applications I implemented a new plugin called fallbackswitch that contains two elements to automate this.

It is part of the GStreamer Rust plugins and also included in the recent 0.6.0 release, which can also be found on the Rust package (“crate”) repository crates.io.

Installation

For using the plugin you most likely first need to compile it yourself, unless you’re lucky enough that e.g. your...


A very common problem in GStreamer, especially when working with live network streams, is that the source might just fail at some point. Your own network might have problems, the source of the stream might have problems, …

Without any special handling of such situations, the default behaviour in GStreamer is to simply report an error and let the application worry about handling it. The application might for example want to restart the stream, or it might simply want to show an error to the user, or it might want to show a fallback stream instead, telling the user that the stream is currently not available and then seamlessly switch back to the stream once it comes back.

Implementing all of the aforementioned is quite some effort, especially to do it in a robust way. To make it easier for applications I implemented a new plugin called fallbackswitch that contains two elements to automate this.

It is part of the GStreamer Rust plugins and also included in the recent 0.6.0 release, which can also be found on the Rust package (“crate”) repository crates.io.

Installation

For using the plugin you most likely first need to compile it yourself, unless you’re lucky enough that e.g. your Linux distribution includes it already.

Compiling it requires a Rust toolchain and GStreamer 1.14 or newer. The former you can get via rustup for example, if you don’t have it yet, the latter either from your Linux distribution or by using the macOS, Windows, etc binaries that are provided by the GStreamer project. Once that is done, compiling is mostly a matter of running cargo build in the utils/fallbackswitch directory and copying the resulting libgstfallbackswitch.so (or .dll or .dylib) into one of the GStreamer plugin directories, for example ~/.local/share/gstreamer-1.0/plugins.

fallbackswitch

The first of the two elements is fallbackswitch. It acts as a filter that can be placed into any kind of live stream. It consumes one main stream (which must be live) and outputs this stream as-is if everything works well. Based on the timeout property it detects if this main stream didn’t have any activity for the configured amount of time, or everything arrived too late for that long, and then seamlessly switches to a fallback stream. The fallback stream is the second input of the element and does not have to be live (but it can be).

Switching between main stream and fallback stream doesn’t only work for raw audio and video streams but also works for compressed formats. The element will take constraints like keyframes into account when switching, and if necessary/possible also request new keyframes from the sources.

For example to play the Sintel trailer over the network and displaying a test pattern if it doesn’t produce any data, the following pipeline can be constructed:

gst-launch-1.0 souphttpsrc location=https://www.freedesktop.org/software/gstreamer-sdk/data/media/sintel_trailer-480p.webm ! \
    decodebin ! identity sync=true ! fallbackswitch name=s ! videoconvert ! autovideosink \
    videotestsrc ! s.fallback_sink

Note the identity sync=true in the main stream here as we have to convert it to an actual live stream.

Now when running the above command and disconnecting from the network, the video should freeze at some point and after 5 seconds a test pattern should be displayed.

However, when using fallbackswitch the application will still have to take care of handling actual errors from the main source and possibly restarting it. Waiting a bit longer after disconnecting the network with the above command will report an error, which then stops the pipeline.

To make that part easier there is the second element.

fallbacksrc

The second element is fallbacksrc and as the name suggests it is an actual source element. When using it, the main source can be configured via an URI or by providing a custom source element. Internally it then takes care of buffering the source, converting non-live streams into live streams and restarting the source transparently on errors. The various timeouts for this can be configured via properties.

Different to fallbackswitch it also handles audio and video at the same time and demuxes/decodes the streams.

Currently the only fallback streams that can be configured are still images for video. For audio the element will always output silence for now, and if no fallback image is configured for video it outputs black instead. In the future I would like to add support for arbitrary fallback streams, which hopefully shouldn’t be too hard. The basic infrastructure for it is already there.

To use it again in our previous example and having a JPEG image displayed whenever the source does not produce any new data, the following can be done:

gst-launch-1.0 fallbacksrc uri=https://www.freedesktop.org/software/gstreamer-sdk/data/media/sintel_trailer-480p.webm \
    fallback-uri=file:///path/to/some/jpg ! videoconvert ! autovideosink

Now when disconnecting the network, after a while (longer than before because fallbacksrc does additional buffering for non-live network streams) the fallback image should be shown. Different to before, waiting longer will not lead to an error and reconnecting the network causes the video to reappear. However as this is not an actual live-stream, right now playback would again start from the beginning. Seeking back to the previous position would be another potential feature that could be added in the future.

Overall these two elements should make it easier for applications to handle errors in live network sources. While the two elements are still relatively minimal feature-wise, they should already be usable in various real scenarios and are already used in production.

As usual, if you run into any problems or are missing some features, please create an issue in the GStreamer bug tracker.


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